Grammatical mood

In Standard/Literary Arabic, the verb in its imperfect aspect (al-muḍāri‘) has a subjunctive form called the manṣūb form (). It is distinct from the imperfect indicative in most of its forms: where the indicative has «-u», the subjunctive has «-a»; and where the indicative has «-na» or «-ni», the subjunctive has nothing at all. (The «-na» ending in the second and third-person plural feminine is different: it marks the gender and number, not the mood, and therefore it is there in both the indicative and subjunctive.)

The subjunctive is used in that-clauses, after Arabic an: urīdu an aktuba «I want to write.» However, in conditional and precative sentences, such as «if he goes» or «let him go», a different mood of the imperfective aspect, the jussive, majzūm, is used.

In many spoken Arabic dialects, there remains a distinction between indicative and subjunctive; however, it is not through a suffix but rather a prefix.

In Levantine Arabic, the indicative has b- while the subjunctive lacks it:

  • third sing. masc. huwwe byuktob «he writes / is writing / will write», versus yuktob «he may / should write»
  • third plural masc. homme byukotbu, versus yukotbu
  • (Law/Momken enti tektebi. «If /Maybe you write») (s.f)
  • (Law/Momken enti katabti. «If /Maybe you wrote») (s.f)
  • (Law/Momken enti konti tektebi.»If /Maybe you would write») (s.f)
  • (Law/Momken enti ḥatektebi. «If /Maybe you will write») (s.f)

Tunisian Arabic often precedes the imperfective indicative verb by various conjunctions to create the subjunctive:

Literally: not at.you subj_tool you_write

Ken for wish, hope or opinion:

  • Netmanna, ken nscoufk nejħ nhar. I wish i’d see you successful one day: Wish
  • Ken yesclqu. (I) hope they find out: Hope

Taw for a hightly-expected possibility:

Ra for inevitability but it’s, in most cases, accompanied with «ken» in the other clause:

Final short vowels were elided in Hebrew in prehistoric times, so that the distinction between the Proto-Semitic indicative, subjunctive and jussive (similar to Classical Arabic forms) had largely been lost even in Biblical Hebrew. The distinction does remain for some verbal categories, where the original final morphemes effected lasting secondary changes in word-internal syllabic structure and vowel length. These include weak roots with a medial or final vowel, such as yaqūm «he rises / will rise» versus yaqom «may he rise» and yihye «he will be» versus yehi «may he be», imperfect forms of the hiphil stem, and also generally for first person imperfect forms: ‎ (imperfect indicative of ‘sit’) vs. ‎ (imperfect cohortative=volitive of ‘sit’). In modern Hebrew, the situation has been carried even further, with forms like yaqom and yehi becoming non-productive; instead, the future tense (prefix conjugation) is used for the subjunctive, often with the particle she- added to introduce the clause, if it is not already present (similar to French que).

  • «‎» (Sheyavo) – «Let him come» or «May he come» (literally, «That (he) will come»)
  • «אני רוצה שיבוא‎» (Ani rotzeh sheyavo) – «I want him to come» (literally, «I want that (he) will come»)

Biblical subjunctive forms survive in non-productive phrases in such forms as the third-person singular of to be (‎ – lihyot, ‎ or ‎) and to live (‎ – likhyot, ‎), mostly in a literary register:

  • «‎» (Y’khi ha-melekh) – «Long live the king» (literally, «Live the-king»)
  • «‎» (Lu Y’hi) – «Let it be» (literally, «if it be») (a popular song in Hebrew, by Naomi Shemer)

Irrealis moods or non indicative moods are the set of grammatical moods that indicate that something is not actually the case or a certain situation or action is not known to have happened. They are any verb or sentence mood that is not a realis mood. They may be part of expressions of necessity, possibility, requirement, wish or desire, fear, or as part of counterfactual reasoning, etc.

Irrealis verb forms are used when speaking of an event which has not happened, is not likely to happen, or is otherwise far removed from the real course of events. For example, in the sentence «If you had done your homework, you wouldn’t have failed the class», had done is an irrealis verb form.

Common irrealis moods are the conditional, the subjunctive, the optative, the jussive, and the potential. For other examples, see the main article for each respective mood.

Some Germanic languages distinguish between two types of subjunctive moods, for example, the Konjunktiv I and II in German.

1 In modern usage, the imperfect indicative usually replaces the imperfect subjunctive in this type of sentence.

In certain other languages, the dubitative or the conditional moods may be employed instead of the subjunctive in referring to doubtful or unlikely events (see the main article).

The conditional mood is used for speaking of an event whose realization is dependent upon another condition, particularly, but not exclusively, in conditional sentences. In Modern English, this type of modality is expressed via a periphrastic construction, with the form would + infinitive, (for example, I would buy), and thus is a mood only in the broad sense and not in the more common narrow sense of the term «mood» requiring morphological changes in the verb. In other languages, verbs have a specific conditional inflection. In German, the conditional mood is identical to one of the two subjunctive moods (Konjunktiv II, see above).

In the Romance languages, the conditional form is used primarily in the apodosis (main clause) of conditional sentences, and in a few set phrases where it expresses courtesy or doubt. The main verb in the protasis (dependent clause) is usually in the subjunctive or in the indicative mood. However, this is not a universal trait and among others in German (as above), Finnish, and Romanian (even though the last is a Romance language), the conditional mood is used in both the apodosis and the protasis. A further example is a sentence «I would buy a house if I earned a lot of money».

  • Irish has conditional marking in both clauses, -adh in the verbs illustrated: d’itheadh ‘would eat, would have eaten’ and beadh ‘would be, would have been’, along with a specific irrealis conditional dá ‘if’, which contrasts with the realis conditional má ‘if’ (i.e. Ithfidh sé má bhíonn ocras air. ‘He’ll eat if he is hungry’).
  • In Finnish, both clauses likewise have the conditional marker -isi-: Ostaisin talon, jos ansaitsisin paljon rahaa.
  • In Polish (as well as in eastern and other western Slavic languages), the conditional marker -by also appears twice: Kupiłbym dom, gdybym zarabiał dużo pieniędzy.
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The optative mood expresses hopes, wishes or commands and has other uses that may overlap with the subjunctive mood. Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Kazakh, Japanese, Finnish, Nepali, and Sanskrit.

The imperative mood expresses direct commands, prohibitions, and requests. In many circumstances, using the imperative mood may sound blunt or even rude, so it is often used with care. Example: «Pat, do your homework now». An imperative is used for telling someone to do something without argument. Many languages, including English, use the bare verb stem to form the imperative (such as «go», «run», «do»). Other languages, such as Seri, Hindi, and Latin, however, use special imperative forms.

  • In English, the second person is implied by the imperative except when first-person plural is specified, as in «Let’s go» («Let us go»).
  • In Romance languages, a first person plural exists in the imperative mood: Spanish: Vayamos a la playa; French: Allons à la plage (both meaning: Let’s go to the beach).

The prohibitive mood, the negative imperative, may be grammatically or morphologically different from the imperative mood in some languages. It indicates that the action of the verb is not permitted. For example, «Don’t you go!» In English, the imperative is sometimes used for forming a conditional sentence: for example, «go eastwards a mile, and you’ll see it» means «if you go eastwards a mile, you will see it».

The jussive, similarly to the imperative, expresses orders, commands, exhortations, but particularly to a third person not present. An imperative, in contrast, generally applies to the listener. When a language is said to have a jussive, the jussive forms are different from the imperative ones, but may be the same as the forms called «subjunctive» in that language. Latin and Hindi are examples of where the jussive is simply about certain specific uses of the subjunctive. Arabic, however, is a language with distinct subjunctive, imperative, and jussive conjugations.

In Hungarian, the potential is formed by the suffix -hat/-het and it can express both possibility and permission: adhat «may give, can give»; Mehetünk? «Can we go?»

In English, it is formed by means of the auxiliaries may, can, ought, and must: «She may go.».

The presumptive mood is used to express presupposition or hypothesis, regardless of the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, and inevitability. It is used in Romanian, Hindi, Gujarati, and Punjabi.

  • The translations are just the closest possible English approximations and not exact.
  • Only masculine conjugations are shown for Hindi.

A few languages use a hypothetical mood, which is used in sentences such as «you could have cut yourself», representing something that might have happened but did not.

The inferential mood is used to report unwitnessed events without confirming them. Often, there is no doubt as to the veracity of the statement (for example, if it were on the news), but simply the fact that the speaker was not personally present at the event forces them to use this mood.

In the Balkan languages, the same forms used for the inferential mood also function as admiratives. When referring to Balkan languages, it is often called renarrative mood; when referring to Estonian, it is called oblique mood.

The interrogative (or interrogatory) mood is used for asking questions. Most languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets, and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic.

Deontic mood vs. epistemic mood

Etymologically, the word mood derives from the Old English which denoted military courage, but could also refer to a person’s humor, temper, or disposition at a particular time. The cognate Gothic translates both «mood, spiritedness» and «anger».

Повелительное наклонение

Утвердительная форма повелительного наклонения совпадает с инфинитивом без частицы «to»:

Обычно подлежащее, выражающее субъект действия опускается, но исключением может быть эмоционально окрашенное обращение или уточнение к кому направленно обращение:

  • us alone! – Оставьте же вы нас в покое!
  • ! – Никому не двигаться!
  • , talking. – Мэри, прекрати разговаривать.

Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола «do» и отрицания «not»:

В повелительном наклонении, вспомогательный глагол «do» также употребляется для выражения нетерпения, ободрения, призыва к действию:

  • tell me! – Ну расскажи же!
  • sit down! – Давай, садись!

Ngaei rong pwa Soahn e laid.

‘I heard that John was fishing (I am certain about it).’

Ngaei rong pwa Soahn ae laid.

‘I heard that John was fishing (but I am not certain about it).’

Soahn ae laid?

‘Does John fish?’

  • e hina’aro na vau tō mei’a rae (Imperfective TAM marker) + hina’aro (Like) + na (Deixis) + vau (Singular) + tō (Definite) + mei’a (Banana) ra (Deixis)
  • e (Imperfective TAM marker) + hina’aro (Like) + na (Deixis) + vau (Singular) + tō (Definite) + mei’a (Banana) ra (Deixis)

В данной статье рассматриваются терминологические сложности грамматики английского языка, а именно определения терминов «mood», «modality» и «mode». Анализируя то, что понимается в современной лингвистике под явлениями модальности и наклонения, автор приходит к выводу, что в грамматике английского языка эти термины тесно взаимосвязаны. Эта точка зрения подтверждается изучением этимологии терминов «mood», «modality» и «mode» в английском языке и исследованием использования этих терминов в ранних грамматических сочинениях и работах по грамматике современного английского языка. Исследование показало, что грамматический термин «mode» считается вариантом написания слова «mood», произошедшим от латинского «modus». Автор приходит к выводу, что термин «mood» относится к формам глагола, которые можно рассматривать лишь как один из способов выражения модальности «modality». Таким образом, для английского языка, где модальность выражается в форме глагола, термины «mood» и «modality» могут использоваться взаимозаменяемо.

наклонение, модальность, грамматика английского языка.

In English there is such a grammatical category as mood. Traditionally, the grammar books on modern English say about three moods which are indicative, imperative and conditional or subjunctive mood. The noun “mode” is sometimes used with the same meaning as “mood”. Another language phenomenon is modality. The status of this phenomenon is not clear. It is not just thought as a lexical or grammatical category, which is understood as a group of linguistic elements allocated on the basis of some general property. On grammatical and semantical levels of language, modality usually refers to linguistic means that are used to indicate whether an action of the subject or its statement is real (factual), probable, definite, permitted or forbidden. The article’s aim is to try to determine the status of this phenomenon and the terms which describe it in application to the English Grammar.

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Modality is usually thought to be a complex multifaceted phenomenon, therefore, in scientific literature different points of view are expressed about its nature. In linguistic literature the noun “modality” is used to denote a wide range of phenomena with various semantics, grammatical properties and formal expression at different levels of the language structure.

Modality is traditionally defined as a way of expressing person’s attitude to the content of the statement, the relation of the content of the statement to objective reality. The speaker choses the means of expressing modality to indicate whether the action denoted by the verb of the sentence is false / true, possible / impossible, obligatory / optional, desirable / undesirable, etc.

Mood is usually described as a grammar set of finite verbal forms expressing the relation of action to reality from the position of the speaker. In traditional grammars, a system of three moods is adopted: indicative, imperative, and subjunctive or conditional. This universal system is borrowed from the Latin grammar. Indicative mood represents action as a fact of reality. An imperative mood expresses an urge to act. The conditional mood expresses a possible, probable, desirable or described action. When choosing a form of mood, the speaker evaluates the action from the point of view of its reality / unreality, possibility / impossibility, desirability / undesirability, etc.

Thus, the content of the category of mood is nothing more than a modality.

The point of view that the notions of modality and mood are closely connected can be confirmed by the analysis of the origin of the terms “modality” and “mood” in English. If we look at the etymology of the English word “mood” we see that it first meant “emotional condition, state of mind” from Proto-Germanic *mōda- “intellect, mind, intention”. Along with this word there was a noun “mode” meaning “manner of acting or doing” used in the sense of “inflectional category in conjugation” since the mid-15century. This noun was derived from the Latin “modus” which meant what we now call “mood” in grammar and entered the English language directly or through French. It is this word that directly refers to grammar, denoting “modes of action” or the forms of the verb. However, many linguists used the noun “mood”. There are several possible reasons for this. The first is the etymology of the word “mood” which meant “mental state”. Since the main verb forms (modes of the verb) are indicative, imperative and conditional, that is, they express mental abilities, such as perception, command and desire, the word “mood” was used to define these categories. According to another version, in the Middle English period there was a simple spelling confusion of the forms “mood” and “mode” (as in Middle English it was spelled “moode”).

In Romano-Germanic languages, the grammar term with the same meaning as English “mood” is derived from the Latin word “modus”: modo – in Spanish and French, Modus – in German and Dutch.

In early treaties on the grammar of the English language the authors do not separate the terms “modality” and “mood”. They use only the term «mood» or «mode» and never say anything about modality including all modal meanings under the category of mood.

I. Categories of quantity:

— Singularity — Plurality

— Integrity (in some translations — “fullness” or “universality”)

II. Quality Categories:

III. Relationship Categories:

— Substance and affiliation (in some translations — “Substance and Accidence”)

— Cause and action / effect

IV. Modality categories:

— Possibility and impossibility

— Existence and nonexistence

Thus modality can be seen as a meaning of the mood which is considered to be a grammatical way of expression of this meaning. It can be said that mood is a matter of grammatical form, modality a matter of meaning. Mood in that sense can be seen as merely one way of expressing modality. The term “mood” itself is usually restricted to verbal morphology. So for English where the modality is expressed in the form of the verb the terms “mood” and “modality” can be used in some contexts interchangeably.

Modality is a broader semantic concept, which is expressed not only grammatically by the forms of verbs. But if we talk about grammar only, then in English “modality” is just the “mood”. It can be described as a grammatical category within which the indicative forms of the English verbs are opposed to the modal forms that are formed by the modal verbs and infinitive.

This interpretation of the terms allows us to explain the fact that in a number of languages (Russian, for example), these concepts named “naklonenie” and “modal’nost’” are completely different. It is easily explained taking into account the differences in expressing modality in Russian and English. In English it is mainly the grammatical category regularly expressed by the modal verbs (the combination of modal verbs with bare infinitive), but in Russian the class of modal verbs is absent and the means of expressing modality are mainly lexical.

Список литературы

  • Маковельский А.О. История логики / Маковельский А.О. – М.: «Кучково поле», 2004. – 480 с.
  • Auwera Johan Van Der, Aguilar Alfonso Zamorano The History of Modality and Mood // The Oxford Handbook of Modality and Mood / ed. by Jan Nuyts and Johan Van Der Auwera. – Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2016. – 640 p.
  • Calboli Gualtiero Les modes chez Priscien // Priscien: Transmission et refondation de la grammaire, de l’antiquité aux modernes / ed. by Marc Baratin, Bernard Colombat, and Louis Holtz. – Turnhout: Brepols, 2009. – P. 315–329.
  • Depraetere Ilse, Reed Susan Mood and Modality in English // The Handbook of English Linguistics / ed. by Bas Aarts, April McMahon. – Oxford-Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006. – 805p. – P.269-291.
  • Hale William Gardner A Century of Metaphysical Syntax // Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, Vol III: History of Language, History of Literature, History of Art. Boston / ed. by Howard J. Rogers. – Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1906. – P. 191–202.
  • Huddleston R. English grammar: an outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. – 212 p.
  • Koppin Karl Beitrag zur Entwickelung und Würdigung der Ideen über die Grundbedeutungen der griechischen Modi. – Wismar: Grosse Stadtschule,1877 – 128 p.
  • Michael Ian English Grammatical Categories and the Tradition to 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. – 640 p.
  • Murray Lindley English Grammar adapted to the different classes of Learners. – Lnd, N.Y., Bombay, 1896. – 309 p.
  • Nuchelmans Gabriel Theories of the Proposition: Ancient and Medieval Conceptions of the Bearers of Truth and Falsity. – Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1973. – 309 p.
  • Pape Ingetrud Tradition und Transformation des Modalität, Erster Band: Möglichket—Unmöglichkeit. – Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1966. – 266 p.
  • Sweet Henry A New English Grammar. Part 1. – Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1892. – 499 p.
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This mood in Hungarian is generally used to express polite demands and suggestions. The endings are identical between imperative, conjunctive and subjunctive; it is therefore often called the conjunctive-imperative mood.

  • Add nekem! – ‘Give it to me.’ – demand
  • Menjünk! – ‘Let’s go.’ – suggestion
  • Menjek? – ‘Shall I go?’ – suggestion or question
  • Menj! – ‘Go!’ – demand

The characteristic letter in its ending is -j-, and in the definite conjunctive conjugation the endings appear very similar to those of singular possession, with a leading letter -j-.

An unusual feature of the mood’s endings is that there exist a short and a long form for the second person singular (i.e. «you»). The formation of this for regular verbs differs between the indefinite and definite: the indefinite requires just the addition of -j, which differs from the longer ending in that the last two sounds are omitted (-j and not -jél for example in menj above, cf. menjél). The short version of the definite form also drops two letters, but another two. It drops, for example: the -ja- in -jad, leaving just -d, as can be seen in add above (instead of adjad).

There are several groups of exceptions involving verbs that end in -t. The rules for how this letter, and a preceding letter, should change when the subjunctive endings are applied are quite complicated, see the article Hungarian verbs.
As usual, gemination of a final sibilant consonant is demonstrated when a j-initial ending is applied:

mos + -jak gives mossak ‘let me wash’ (-j- changes to -s-)

When referring to the demands of others, the subjunctive is demonstrated:

kérte, hogy menjek. ‘He asked that I go. (He asked me to go.)’ Here, «I go» is in the subjunctive.

Positive mood can be caused by many different aspects of life as well as have certain effects on people as a whole. Good mood is usually considered a state without an identified cause; people cannot pinpoint exactly why they are in a good mood. People seem to experience a positive mood when they have a clean slate, have had a good night sleep, and feel no sense of stress in their life.

Visual Representation of Commonly Experienced Moods

Like positive moods, negative moods have important implications for human mental and physical wellbeing. Moods are basic psychological states that can occur as a reaction to an event or can surface for no apparent external cause. Since there is no intentional object that causes the negative mood, it has no specific start and stop date. It can last for hours, days, weeks, or longer. Negative moods can manipulate how individuals interpret and translate the world around them, and can also direct their behavior.

Negative moods have been connected with depression, anxiety, aggression, poor self-esteem, physiological stress and decrease in sexual arousal. In some individuals, there is evidence that depressed or anxious mood may increase sexual interest or arousal. In general, men were more likely than women to report increased sexual drive during negative mood states. Negative moods are labeled as nonconstructive because it can affect a person’s ability to process information; making them focus solely on the sender of a message, while people in positive moods will pay more attention to both the sender and the context of a message. This can lead to problems in social relationships with others.

From SIL International:

  • Deontic modality
    Volitive modality: imprecative mood, optative moodDirective modality: deliberative mood, imperative mood, immediate imperative mood, jussive mood, obligative mood, permissive mood, precative mood, prohibitive mood
  • Volitive modality: imprecative mood, optative mood
  • Directive modality: deliberative mood, imperative mood, immediate imperative mood, jussive mood, obligative mood, permissive mood, precative mood, prohibitive mood
  • Epistemic modality
    judgment modality: assumptive mood, declarative mood, deductive mood, dubitative mood, hypothetical mood, interrogative mood, speculative mood
  • judgment modality: assumptive mood, declarative mood, deductive mood, dubitative mood, hypothetical mood, interrogative mood, speculative mood
  • Irrealis modality: subjunctive mood

Realis moods are a category of grammatical moods that indicate that something is actually the case or actually not the case. The most common realis mood is the indicative mood. Some languages have a distinct generic mood for expressing general truths.

The indicative mood, or evidential mood, is used for factual statements and positive beliefs. It is the mood of reality. The indicative mood is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. Example: «Paul is eating an apple» or «John eats apples».

В отличие от модальных глаголов, которые являются лексическим способом
выражения модальности, наклонение выражается грамматическими средствами т. е.
определённой формой глагола.

Сослагательное наклонение

В английском языке имеется две формы сослагательного наклонения:

  • Subjunctive I употребляется для выражения действия, которое в принципе может состояться;
  • Subjunctive II – для выражения действия, которое рассматривается как невозможное:
  • I he here. – Я настаиваю, чтобы он был здесь. (желаемое действие)
  • I he here. – Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он был здесь (но его нет и не может быть). (нереальное действие).

Подробнее см. основную статью: Сослагательное наклонение.

Условное наклонение

Условное наклонение образуется с помощью модального глагола «would»:

Если условное наклонение называет действие, которое предшествует моменту речи, то смысловой глагол употребляется в перфектной форме:

С грамматической точки зрения условного наклонения не существует, ибо в английском нет такой формы глагола, но данное наклонение иногда выделяется в некоторых грамматиках.

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