- Mass Media
- Средства массовой информации
- Mass Media. Английские слова (intermediate)
- Kinds of the Media
- I. General Words on Mass Media:
- II. Kinds of TV Programmes:
- III. Kinds of Newspapers & the Press:
- IV. The Internet:
- Mass Media. Задания
- Motion picturesEdit
- Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)
- Video gamesEdit
- Further readingEdit
- External linksEdit
- Топики по английскому языку
- A Short History of Hair. Топик по английскому
- American Climate. Топик по английскому
- American English. Топик по английскому
- American Food. Топик по английскому
- American Government. Топик по английскому
- American Holidays. Топик по английскому
- American People. Топик по английскому
- American Political System. Топик по английскому
- American Shopping Habits. Топик по английскому
- American System of Education. Топик по английскому
The mass media play an important role in our lives. Newspapers, radio and especially TV inform us of what is going on in this world and give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also influence the way we see the world and shape our views.
Of course, not all newspapers and TV programmes report the events objectively, but serious journalists and TV reporters try to be fair and provide us with reliable information.
It is true that the world today is full of dramatic events and most news seems to be bad news. But people aren’t interested in ordinary events. That is why there are so many programmes and articles about natural disasters, plane crashes, wars, murders and robberies. Good news doesn’t usually make headlines. Bad news does.
The main source of news for millions of people is television. People like TV news because they can see everything with their own eyes. And that’s an important advantage. Seeing, as we know, is believing. Besides, it’s much more difficult for politicians to lie in front of the cameras than on the pages of newspapers.
Still, many people prefer radio. It’s good to listen to it in the car, or in the open air, or when you do something about the house.
Newspapers don’t react to events as quickly as TV, but they usually provide us with extra details, comments and background information.
The Internet has recently become another important source of information. Its main advantage is that news appears on the screen as soon as things happen in real life and you don’t have to wait for news time on TV.
Средства массовой информации
Средства массовой информации играют важную роль в нашей жизни. Газеты, радио и особенно телевидение, сообщают нам о том, что происходит в этом мире и дают прекрасные возможности для обучения и развлечений. Они также влияют на то, как мы видим мир и формируют нашу точку зрения.
Конечно, не все газеты и телевизионные программы освещают события объективно, но серьезные журналисты и тележурналисты стараются быть справедливыми и предоставлять нам достоверную информацию.
Это правда, что сегодня мир полон драматических событий и большинство новостей кажутся плохими. Но люди не заинтересованы в обычных событиях. Поэтому есть так много программ и статей о стихийных бедствиях, авиакатастрофах, войнах, убийствах и грабежах. Хорошие новости как правило, не делают заголовки. Плохие новости делают.
Некоторые люди говорят, что журналистам дается слишком много свободы. Они часто вторгаются в частную жизнь людей. Они преследуют знаменитостей и печатают сенсационные рассказы о них, которые являются ложными или наполовину правдивыми. Они фотографируют их в самые интимные моменты. Вопрос — должно ли это быть разрешено?
Основным источником информации для миллионов людей является телевидение. Людям нравятся телевизионные новости, поскольку они могут увидеть все собственными глазами. И это важное преимущество. Видя, как мы знаем, веришь. Кроме того, для политиков гораздо сложнее врать перед камерами, чем на страницах газет.
Тем не менее, многие люди предпочитают радио. Его хорошо слушать в машине, на открытом воздухе, или когда вы что-то делаете по дому.
Интернет в последнее время стал еще одним важным источником информации. Его главное преимущество в том, что новости на экране появляются, как только они происходят в реальной жизни, и вам не придется ждать времени новостей на телевидении.
Mass Media. Английские слова (intermediate)
Kinds of the Media
- TV (television) — телевидение
- the Internet — интернет
- the Radio — радио
- the Press (e.g.newspapers &magazines) — пресса (газеты и журналы)
- the Advertisement — реклама
- Cinema — кинематограф
- Pop Music Industry — поп-индустрия
I. General Words on Mass Media:
II. Kinds of TV Programmes:
- feature film — художественный фильм
- documentary — документальный фильм
- educational programme — познавательная передача
- soap opera — многосерийный сериал
- serial [‘sɪərɪəl] / series is [`siəri:z] — сериал
- documentary series about — документальный сериал о …
- episode — серия
- cartoon — мультфильм
- game show — игровое шоу
- reality show — реалити шоу
- chat/ talk show — чат- шоу / ток-шоу
- the news — новости
- commercial — рекламный ролик
- Turn down the television. I can’t hear the telephone.
- Do you turn over to another channel during adverts?
III. Kinds of Newspapers & the Press:
- local paper — местная газета
- popular paper — массовая газета (рассчитана на невзыскательного читателя, печатает материалы сенсационного характера)
- quality paper — «солидная» газета (рассчитана на осведомлёного читателя; публикует много внутриполитической и экономической информации)
- newspaper article — газетная статья
- headline [`hedlain] — заголовок
IV. The Internet:
- use as source of information — использовать как источник информации
- for communication — для общения
- for entertainment — для развлечения
- chat on line — болтать онлайн
- send an email / a txt message- отправлять электронное письмо / сообщение
- look for information — искать информацию
- find info… for studies — находить … для занятий
- download info… onto — загрузить … на
- addiction — зависимость
- computer addict — человек, зависимый от компьютера
Mass Media. Задания
Kinds of Mass Media:
- An advert
- A soap (opera)
- Sport news
- A talk show
- A music programme
- A weather forcast
- The Internet
- The Quiz
- an announcement in a newspaper, on television, or on a poster about something such as a product, event, or job;
- a statement saying what the weather will be like the next day or for the next few days;
- a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide;
- newly received or noteworthy information, esp. about recent or important sports events;
- a television or radio drama serial dealing typically with daily events in the lives of the same group of characters;
- TV or radio programme which broadcasts music;
- a television or radio show in which famous people talk to each other in an informal way and are asked questions about different topics;
- a form of game or mind sport in which the players (as individuals or in teams) attempt to answer questions correctly. In some countries, a quiz is also a brief assessment used in education and similar fields to measure growth in knowledge, abilities, and/or skills.
Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие слова в текст по теме «Mass Media»
My elder brother Tom is a TV addict. He spends hours in front of a TV switching the (1) ________ . He watches the news to be informed about __________ (2) affairs and (3) _________ shows to test his knowledge and intelligence. He claims that every TV programme has educational value. For Tom even a _________ show, in which an interviewer talks to a well-known personality, provides a lot of useful information. Well, I think that he just loves gossip about the lives of (5) _________ like Ronaldo or Claudia Schiffer.
Ответы в конце статьи.
Задание 3. Прочитайте текст о телевидении. Составьте свое мнение на его основе.
- public opinion polls — опрос общественного мнения
- glue — приклеиться
- selective — избирательный
Ninety-eight percent of us have a TV set at home. According to the public opinion polls, the average viewer watches TV as much as 25 hours a week. Television informs, educates and entertains people. It also influences the way people look and makes them change their views.
On the one side, watching television is probably the easiest way of spending free time. Though it is not a good way even if programmes contain nothing negative. TV can be blamed for turning people into «coach potatoes» as it is very easy to start watching it and sometimes difficult to stop. The whole families can glue to the box in the evenings. Besides, the members of the family often prefer lying on the coach and watching their own TV to communicating with each other.
On the other side, for lonely or elderly people television can be a good thing as it is cheap and convenient form of entertainment. It can be an ideal way to relax wihout turning into a TV addict.
All in all, television is informative, useful, entertaining and relaxing — and yes, banal and boring. We need to be selective, otherwise we have only ourselves to blame.
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«American Media» redirects here. For the publishing company also known as American Media, see A360media.
Mass media in the United States consist of several types of media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. New York City, Manhattan in particular, and to a lesser extent Los Angeles, are considered the epicenters of U.S. media.
People using smartphones, devices associated with young people, but commonly used by people of all ages
Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry, with a corporate media bias.
The Washington Post on Monday, July 21, 1969, stating «‘The Eagle Has Landed’—Two Men Walk on the Moon».
With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.
Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have «alternative weeklies» to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New York City’s Village Voice or Los Angeles’ L.A. Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.
As competition from other media has evolved, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.
For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 – or about 70 percent – of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766—or about half—of them were evening papers.)
Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded:
The primary source of newspaper income is advertising – in the form of «classifieds» or inserted advertising circulars – rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).
Additionally, as investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms. Examples include ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.
The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.
La Opinión is the most read newspaper website in the United States, reaching more than 6 million readers each month. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States and the second-most read newspaper in Los Angeles (after The Los Angeles Times).
Thanks to the huge size of the English-speaking North American media market, the United States has a large magazine industry with hundreds of magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of the large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren. The American Society of Magazine Editors sponsors the annual National Magazine Awards recognizing excellence.
The U.S. has three leading weekly news magazines: Time, Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. Time and Newsweek are center-left while U.S. News & World Report tends to be center-right. Time is well known for naming a «Person of the Year» each year, while U.S. News publishes annual ratings of American colleges and universities.
The U.S. also has over a dozen major political magazines, including The Atlantic, The New Yorker, Harper’s Magazine and Foreign Policy among others. In entertainment the magazines Variety, The Hollywood Reporter, Rolling Stone, L.A. Record and Billboard are very popular. In arts Smithsonian and Art in America magazines are major magazines.
El Nuevo Cojo (Los Angeles), and Two Mundos Magazine (Miami) are two bilingual (English/Spanish) lifestyle and entertainment magazines. It’s not a coordinated exodus for magazines in the United States but the transition from print’s primacy to digital’s that has started at the turn of the century.
Fireside chat on government and capitalism (September 30, 1934)
American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio – featuring interviews and discussions – while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop, country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have become increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation’s primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 had limited the number of radio station one person or company could own to 1 am and 1 FM locally, and 7 am and 7 FM stations nationally. But due to extensive concentration of media ownership stemming from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, radio companies could own not more than 8 local stations per area market. Most stations are now owned by major radio companies such as iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), Cumulus Media, Townsquare Media and Entercom. See IBOC and HD Radio.
A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two biggest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, which have recently merged to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated by the FCC.
Nielsen Audio, formerly known as Arbitron, is consumer research company that provides ratings (similar to the Nielsen ratings) for national and local radio stations in the United States.
Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008
The five major US broadcast networks
Several Spanish language broadcast (as well as cable) networks exist, which are the most common form of non-English television broadcasts. These networks are not as widely distributed over-the-air as their English counterparts, available mostly in markets with sizeable Latino and Hispanic populations; several of these over-the-air networks are alternatively fed directly to cable, satellite and IPTV providers in markets without either the availability or the demand for a locally based owned-and-operated or affiliate station.
The largest of these networks, Univision, launched in 1986 as a successor to the Spanish International Network. Its major competition is Telemundo (est. 1986), a sister network of NBC (which acquired Telemundo in 2001). Founded: 2009 Estrella TV is another Spanish-language broadcast television network.
Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries. However, a number of states, including West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and South Carolina, among others, do have state-owned public broadcasting authorities which operate and fund all public television stations in their respective states. The income received from the government is insufficient to cover expenses and stations also rely on corporate sponsorships and viewer contributions.
Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)
Increasingly we are seeing families with tablet computer in cars, on vacation, while visiting Grandma, at the beach, in the airport lounge. It is the biggest expansion of the motion picture audience since the introduction of home video.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, drive-in theaters reported an unexpected surge in attendance in several U.S. states as, unlike with indoor theaters unable to operate because of bans on mass gatherings, these were allowed to operate.
A US Marine playing Top Gun
YouTube, the second most visited website
- Margaret A. Blanchard, ed. (2013) . History of the Mass Media in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91749-4.
- Cynthia L. Clark, ed. (2011). «Media». The American Economy: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 282+. ISBN 978-1-59884-461-0.
- Anthony Fellow (2011). American Media History (3rd ed.). Cengage Learning, Inc. ISBN 978-1-111-34812-0.
- Lisa Nakamura (2014). «Media». In Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler (ed.). Keywords for American Cultural Studies (2nd ed.). New York University Press. pp. 165+. ISBN 9780814725313.
- «United States Profile: Media», BBC News, August 28, 2019
- «Media History Digital Library». David Pierce and Eric Hoyt, directors. USA.
Non-profit…dedicated to digitizing historic books and magazines about film, broadcasting, and recorded sound
- Barry Brummett, «Media: An Overview», in Simon J. Bronner (ed.), Encyclopedia of American Studies, Johns Hopkins University Press
To sum up, mass media is the way of conveyance information, spreading it among people and exchanging minds. We’re able to influence others and be influenced as well. There is no need to ignore or forbidden mass media. Still, people have to handle the news and express own opinion.
Подводя итог, можно сказать, что средства массовой информации — это способ передачи информации, ее распространения среди людей и обмена мнениями. Мы можем влиять на других, а также влияют на нас. Нет необходимости игнорировать или запрещать СМИ. Тем не менее, люди должны обрабатывать новости и выражать собственное мнение.
Mass communication has revolutionized the modern world. In the United States it has given rise to what social observers sometimes call a media state, a society in which access to power is through the media. The term media, understood broadly, includes any channel of information through which information can pass. Since a democracy largely depends on public opinion, all those involved in communicating information inevitably have an important role to play. The print and broadcasting media not only convey information to the public, but also influence public opinion. Television, with access to virtually every American household, is a powerful influence.
On average, American viewers watch TV about six hours a day, usually tuned to one of the national commercial networks: ABC (the American Broadcasting Corporation), NBC (the National Broadcasting Company), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) or Fox Broadcasting Company. These stations attract about 98 per cent of TV audiences.
Theoretically, anyone in the United States can start a newspaper or a magazine, but to become a radio or television broadcaster one must be granted a portion of the limited radio-television spectrum by the government’s licensing board, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). For the most part, the American broadcasting system has always been a commercial system. It is supported by money from businesses that pay to advertise goods or services to the audience. Advertising messages are usually presented as 15, 30 or 60-second commercial announcements before, during and after programs. During a sixty-minute TV program you can expect to see about twelve minutes of commercials.
Commercial broadcasting is a huge industry bringing in profits of about 1.8 billion dollars annually. The commercial networks broadcast a variety of shows: news, drama, soap operas, comedy, sports, music, movies, children’s programs, game shows and talk shows. There are a lot of competitions for viewers, especially during prime time, from 7 to 11 pm.
PBS (Public Broadcasting Service), supported by government and private funding, is the only noncommercial network. It broadcasts more serious drama, performing arts, science, public- affairs documentaries and educational children’s programs. Sesame Street, the most popular children’s show on PBS, appears on TV stations all over the world. All five networks broadcast twenty-four hours a day.
Viewers whose tastes are not satisfied by the many offerings of network and local programs are now increasing their options by subscribing to cable television. About 35 million Americans pay a monthly fee for greater selection. There are up to 500 cable stations. Two well-known ones are HBO (Home Box Office), which shows movies, and CNN, which specializes in news.
Satellite TV was originally designed to offer a greater selection of programs to people in rural areas that could not easily be connected to the cable system. It now provides anybody who is ready to have a satellite dish installed in his or her backyard with the same programing as cable TV. Conventional television has had to struggle to retain its audience as people switch over to cable viewing, satellite TV or renting video cassettes.
Across the United States there are more than nine thousand radio stations. Almost all of them are commercial, except for
National Public Radio stations. Listeners can tune into all kinds of stations: pop or classical music, news, sport, or community radio. Talk radio shows are very popular. Listeners call in and ask the talk- show host or guests questions about anything from cooking or car repair to politics or health. Callers often get a chance to give their opinion on the air.
There’s something for everyone to read with 1,700 daily and 6,300 weekly newspapers. Eight out of ten Americans read a tabloid or standard newspaper every day. Often newspapers are delivered early in the morning so people can read them before leaving home. Standard newspapers have long articles about local, national and international news, while tabloid newspapers include short news articles and a lot of photos, stories about famous people, advice columns and horoscopes. Most newspapers are regional rather than national, although some are distributed all over America. The New York Times, for example, is available in New York and in most big cities. The paper with the largest circulation is The Wall Street Journal, which specializes in business news.
Nowadays Americans consider television their most important source of news, and a majority ranks television as the most believable news source. Accordingly, newspapers have to cope with competition from radio and television.
Топики по английскому языку
A Short History of Hair. Топик по английскому
American Climate. Топик по английскому
American English. Топик по английскому
American Food. Топик по английскому
American Government. Топик по английскому
American Holidays. Топик по английскому
American People. Топик по английскому
American Political System. Топик по английскому
American Shopping Habits. Топик по английскому
American System of Education. Топик по английскому
Представлено сочинение на английском языке Интернет, как средство массовой информации/ Internet As Media Platform с переводом на русский язык.