Modal Verbs

Modal Verbs Английский

We use modal verbs in a situation where we need some level of deduction which means we say how sure we are about something.

Дедукція – це процес прийняття рішення чи відповіді шляхом обмірковування відомого факту чи прийнятого рішення. Шерлок Холмс використовував цей метод, щоб знайти злочинців.

Дедукция – это процесс принятия решения или ответа путем обдумывания известного факта или принятого решения. Знаменитый Шерлок Холмс использовал этот метод, чтобы найти преступников.

  1. Introduction to Roleplay
  2. Шерлок Холмс и модальные глаголы
  3. Must have + past participle
  4. Might have + past participle
  5. Could have + past participle
  6. Should have + past participle
  7. Grammar explanation
  8. Might have / may have
  9. Can’t have / couldn’t have
  10. Language level
  11. Характерные особенности Modal Verbs
  12. Вопросы и отрицания
  13. Деление на группы
  14. Modal verbs of deduction
  15. Verbs of possibility
  16. Verbs of obligation
  17. Verbs of volition
  18. Временные формы модальных глаголов
  19. Эквиваленты модальных глаголов
  20. Для действий в настоящем. Present actions
  21. Для действий в прошлом. Past actions
  22. Task
  23. Roma Online Complete IELTS Training Course
  24. Features of Complete IELTS Training Course
  25. Football Phrase
  26. Modals
  27. ▶️ Must
  28. ▶️ Might, May, Could
  29. ▶️ Can’t
  30. ▶️ Must Have
  31. ▶️ Might Have / May Have
  32. ▶️ Might Not Have
  33. ▶️ Can’t Have / Couldn’t Have
  34. Для действий в будущем. Future actions
  35. Last week’s Football Phrase
  36. Language Focus
  37. Другие способы выразить possibility и certainty
  38. Что-то точно должно произойти
  39. Что-то возможно/наверное произойдет
  40. Что-то вряд ли произойдет
  41. Modal Verbs of deductionIntroduction
  42. Modals of deduction в прошлом времени
  43. Modals of deduction у минулому часі
  44. Что это такое и как употреблять
  45. Modals of deduction в настоящем времени
  46. Що це таке та як вживати
  47. Modals of deduction в теперішньому часі
  48. Modals For Deduction About Past
  49. Must Not Have + Past Participle
  50. Modals For Deduction About The Future
  51. Modals For Deduction About Present

Introduction to Roleplay

Jack: In this section, you’re going to hear a roleplay. You’re going to hear about the strange disappearance of the half-time oranges at a local football club.

Rich: It’s a job for Groundsman Geoff who works as a private detective in his spare time.

Rowan: While you are listening, we want you to answer a couple of questions:

Rowan: Who stole the oranges?

Jack: What’s the evidence against this person?

English language grammar for IELTS offers a wide range of topics when it comes to perfection in the language. Here we come up with our new topic of grammar, that is, modal verbs for deduction.

Modal verbs for deduction are used:-

● To guess if something is true using the available information.

● To show how certain we are about the possibility or to check the level of certainty.

Today’s article will describe the detailed use of modal verbs for the certainty of possibility, probability, and deduction.

Шерлок Холмс и модальные глаголы

Для начала постараемся лучше понять, чем же на самом деле является deduction или дедукция. Словарь предлагает нам следующее определение слова: the process of using the knowledge or information you have in order to understand something or form an opinion. Другими словами, это – умозаключение, к которому мы приходим, применяя общие законы к конкретному случаю. Хотите наглядный пример? Пожалуйста:

Замечая такие общие детали, как положение чашки, ручки, ножа, Шерлок пришел к умозаключению – убитый был левшой.

В английском языке мы располагаем целой группой модальных глаголов, которые помогают нам выразить, насколько вероятным мы считаем то или иное предположение. Начиная от самого маловероятного к самому вероятному, эта цепочка будет выглядеть так:

can’t – might – could – may – must

Данные глаголы можно употреблять для настоящего, прошлого и будущего. После всех этих глаголов употребляется инфинитив без частицы to. Но обо всем по порядку.

To make guesses or deductions about past actions or states use a past modal of deduction. This is formed with a modal verb + have + past participle also called the perfect infinitive.

Where’s my phone? You could have left it in your office.

To make deductions about continuous actions or states use modal verb + have + been + ing form.

Why didn’t Sarah come to the party last night? She must have been feeling ill.

For deductions using the passive use modal verb + have + been + past participle. Your phone could have been stolen from your jacket.

Usage of different modals: must have – you are almost certain that something is true based on some evidence. I must have left the window open. That’s how the cat got in.

might/could/ may have – you think it’s possibly true based on evidence. They could have been delayed by rain. It does rain heavily in the mountains this time of year.

Couldn’t/ can’t have – you are almost certain that this is true or impossible based on evidence. He can’t have left the office yet. It’s only 4 o’clock. He must be in a meeting.

Lesson by Tristan, English teacher at EC Malta English school

  • 1) A: Look at her diamond ring. B: Yes, it __ cost a fortune.
  • 2) A: Patrick isn’t answering his phone. B: He __ switched it off or left it at home.
  • 3) A: Where’s Sarah? B: She said she had an important meeting tomorrow. She __ working late.
  • 4) A: Peter said you were an architect. B: He __ confused me with someone else or maybe he misunderstood me. I’m a vet.
  • 5) A: I can’t find my wallet. B: You __ looked properly. I put it on the table myself.

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Ollie: Hi, Mum!

Sophie: Ah, you’re both there, good. Hi, how are you doing?

Daisy: We’re fine. Just having some pizza. And you?

Sophie: Really good. I’m about to eat too. I’ve just been walking round this amazing market and it’s made me hungry. I’m going to order a big bowl of spicy noodles.

Ollie: Don’t make us jealous, Mum! You’re always doing that.

Sophie: Sorry, love. I was thinking about you just now, actually, and I’ve got a little quiz prepared for you.

Sophie: Yeah. Can you both see the phone? I’m going to send you some photos of Indonesian food. Tell me what the food is.

Daisy: OK, fire away.

Daisy: Ooh, that looks a bit like pasta, burnt pasta, but it isn’t, is it?

Ollie: Nah, that’s a kind of insect. A kind of worm?

Sophie: Yes, very good. One point to Ollie, but that was an easy one. Next.

Ollie: They’re weird. They might be some kind of small pig.

Daisy: I don’t know. Are they little dogs?

Sophie: Ah, they’re actually a lot smaller than that. They’re bats.

Daisy and Ollie: Bats!

Sophie: Yeah, without wings. I haven’t seen anyone eating them, but someone must do. OK, next.

Ollie: That looks like tomato juice, but it can’t be, that would be too easy.

Daisy: It could be some kind of exotic fruit juice like papaya or mango.

Sophie: Nowhere near. I’ll give you a clue. It isn’t made from fruit or vegetables.

Ollie: So, it must come from an animal.

Daisy: I know, it’s blood!

Sophie: Yes, half a point to Daisy. Another half a point for the animal.

Daisy: A fish? A snake? A crocodile?

Sophie: Yep, a snake. It’s cobra blood, very good for the health, they say.

Ollie: Yeeuch, you’ve put me right off my pizza!

Modal Verbs

Hi again, everyone!

Today we are going to look at modal verbs of deduction and speculation in the past.
These modal verbs of deduction in the past are often confusing and difficult to remember, but with a little hard work and practice, you will learn how to use them correctly!

Firstly, it’s important to remember what modal verbs are and why they are used. You can find out more about that by reading this post on the ABA English teachers’ blog.

Now that you’ve refreshed your memory, let’s take a look how to form and use modal verbs in the past.

When we use a modal verb to talk about a situation where we are not expressing a fact but we are using deduction, the form is MODAL VERB + have + past participle

Must have + past participle

We use “must have” + a past participle when we are quite sure about something or we can see the evidence of something.

You must have gone to bed late; you look tired!

Kevin must have been worried when he lost his car keys at the party.

Might have + past participle

We use “might have” + a past participle when we are not sure about something but we think it was possible.

Sarah might have lost her way; she should be here by now.

Jacob and Claire might have arrived at the party already, but they haven’t called me so I’m not sure.

Could have + past participle

We use “could have” + a past participle to indicate that someone had the ability or chance to do something  but did not do it. For example,

You could have gone to university but you decided to work instead.

I didn’t know my parents would be asleep when I got home. I could have stayed out longer!

Should have + past participle

We use “should have” + a past participle to express regret or to tell someone off.

You should have studied more! If you had, you would have passed your exam.

I shouldn’t have gone out last night; now I’m too tired to study.

We can use modal verbs to talk about how sure or unsure we are about something in the past just as we use modals in the present with a slight change in the form. He must be really happy about his promotion. (present deduction) He must have been very happy when he was told about his promotion. (past deduction)

When we use a modal verb to talk about a situation where we are not expressing a fact but we are using deduction the form is MODAL + have + past participle (verb 3)

Must have + past participle We use ‘must have + past participle’ when we are quite sure about something. You must have been very pleased when you received the results of your exams. He must have forgotten his phone at home again. He’s not answering. I must have left my keys in the car. I can’t find them.

Might have/may have/could have + past participle We use ‘might have/may have/could have + past participle’ when we are not sure about something but we think it was possible. He was supposed to be here an hour ago but he could have been stuck in a traffic jam. He may have said he was coming but I can’t really remember. I wasn’t listening. I might have been here when I was a child but I can’t really remember.

Can’t have + past participle We use ‘can’t have + past participle’ for things that we are sure did not happen in the past. I can’t have left my phone at work. You phoned me when I was walking to my car. That’s it. It must be in the car. You can’t have seen him this morning. He was with me all the time. She can’t have liked the show. She hates musicals.

Lesson by Tristan, teacher at EC Malta English school

Now put the correct modal in these sentences.

  • 1 — She ___ misunderstood my directions. Why else is she late?
  • 2 — He ___ gone to the beach. He hates being in the sun.
  • 3 — I ___ written down the number incorrectly. I’ve just called a hospital not the restaurant.
  • 4 — They ___ been at the cafe but I didn’t see them.
  • 5 — John ___ been very happy when he found out he was going to be a father. He’s wanted this for a long time.
  • 6 — He ___ gone to the city centre. He did say he wanted to go shopping.

Do you know how to use modal verbs to show how certain you are about past events? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how must, might, may, could, can’t and couldn’t are used in the past.

An earthquake? That must have been terrifying!
We don’t know for sure that Alex broke the coffee table. It might have been the dog.
How did she fail that exam? She can’t have studied very much.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar explanation

We can use modal verbs for deduction – guessing if something is true using the available information. The modal verb we choose shows how certain we are about the possibility. This page focuses on making deductions about the past.

We use must have + past participle when we feel sure about what happened.

Who told the newspapers about the prime minister’s plans? It must have been someone close to him.
The thief must have had a key. The door was locked and nothing was broken.
Oh, good! We’ve got milk. Mo must have bought some yesterday.

Might have / may have

We can use might have or may have + past participle when we think it’s possible that something happened.

I think I might have left the air conditioning on. Please can you check?
Police think the suspect may have left the country using a fake passport.

May have is more formal than might have. Could have is also possible in this context but less common.

Can’t have / couldn’t have

We use can’t have and couldn’t have + past participle when we think it’s not possible that something happened.

She can’t have driven there. Her car keys are still here.
I thought I saw Adnan this morning but it couldn’t have been him – he’s in Greece this week.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Language level

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Модальные глаголы в английском языке – это отдельная категория, которая отличается определенными особенностями употребления, характерными нормами образования временных конструкций с ними и специфическими значениями. Главное отличие modal verbs от обычных слов-действий заключается в том, что они не отображают действие; понятие модальности предусматривает в первую очередь отношение говорящего к той или иной ситуации, выраженной инфинитивом. Не секрет, что за любым modal неизменно следует неличная глагольная форма, причем с некоторыми modals употребляется не только Indefinite, но и Perfect, Continuous или Perfect Continuous Infinitive.

Modal Verbs

Для того чтобы описать основные особенности, которыми обладают модальные глаголы английского языка, следует обратить внимание на правила их использования и образования, описать основные функции, которые выполняют эти слова, а также привести примеры предложений с ними.

  • Характерные особенности Modal Verbs
  • Вопросы и отрицания
  • Деление на группы
  • Временные формы модальных глаголов
  • Эквиваленты модальных глаголов

Характерные особенности Modal Verbs

Как уже говорилось, модальные глаголы обозначают отношение к тому или иному действию, выраженному посредством инфинитива. Помимо самых популярных модальных глаголов – can, may, must – есть и другие. У modals (список модальных глаголов насчитывает 12 структур) есть типичные черты, которые предусматривает грамматика: они способны самостоятельно образовывать вопросы и отрицания, не прибегая к помощи вспомогательных слов, и всегда требуют после себя инфинитива.

Одна из характерных черт – наличие bare Infinitive после modals. Употребление to после модальных глаголов совершенно нетипично; однако, есть три основных слова, после которых эти частицы употребляются всегда: have to, to be to, ought to.

Читайте также:  Mixed conditionals в английском примеры

Note: у двух modals – need и dare – есть отдельные условия, где правило bare Infinitive работает не всегда. Need, будучи словом из британского варианта английского языка, как правило, не является modal и используется как обычное слово; но если речь идет о American English verbs, то слово будет модальным. Модальный глагол dare имеет несколько другую особенность: он в принципе может быть и модальным (наиболее актуально для вопросительных предложений), и немодальным (часто наблюдается в отрицаниях). Вот несколько примеров таких предложений с переводом:

·      You needn’t go there today – Сегодня тебе не нужно идти туда (need здесь полноценный)
·      You didn’t need to go there – Тебе не нужно было идти туда (need как простое действие)

·      How dare you speak to me? – Как ты смеешь говорить со мной? (dare – модальный)
·      He didn’t dare to speak to me – Он не посмел со мной заговорить (простой глагол)

Вопросы и отрицания

В вопросах с модальными глаголами эти слова обычно ставятся на первое место, и в предложении не появляются вспомогательные слова:

·      Can you come tomorrow? – Ты можешь прийти завтра?
·      Should he complete this task? – Стоит ему заканчивать это задание?

Отрицательные предложения с модальными глаголами также отличаются от обычных: частица not, как правило, добавляется непосредственно к modal, а не к слову-помощнику:

·      You mustn’t smoke here! – Тебе нельзя здесь курить!
·      She needn’t work as her parents father is rich – Ей не нужно работать, так как ее отец богатый

Note: помимо need и dare, особенным с точки зрения грамматики является и have to. Дело в том, что, несмотря на его статус, в предложении он употребляется в виде простого смыслового действия:

·      Did you have to read the whole article? – Тебе пришлось прочитать всю статью?
·      He didn’t have to repeat his words again – Ему не пришлось повторять свои слова еще раз

Однако не стоит путать эту форму с американским аналогом have got to, который хоть и совпадает с have to по смыслу, но грамматически является полноценным modal:

·      Have you got to overwork? – Тебе приходится работать сверх нормы?
·      She hadn’t got to visit a doctor – Ей не пришлось идти к доктору

Деление на группы

В зависимости от того, какое значение придается тому или иному модальному глаголу, их принято разделять на особенные группы.

Modal verbs of deduction – это те английские слова-действия, которые служат для отображения предположения на какую-либо тему. К modals of deduction относятся такие, как can (could), may (might), should. Вот примеры модальных глаголов этой категории в предложениях:

·      It can be a postman, but I’m not sure – Это может быть почтальон, но я не уверен
·      She might be coming home right now – Возможно, она возвращается домой прямо сейчас

Как видно, modals of deduction могут использоваться не только с Indefinite, но и с другими формами инфинитива. Например, с таким modal Perfect Infinitive может говорить о предположении с акцентом на прошлое:

He might have left his home many years ago – Возможно, он оставил свой дом много лет назад

Verbs of possibility

Modals вероятности отображают ситуацию, когда говорящий делает предположение относительного той или иной ситуации. Глагол, употребляемый в такой функции, означает возможность совершение действия. Наиболее частые слова в этом случае – can и may:

·      You can find the book you need in the bookcase – Ты можешь найти книгу, которая тебе нужна в шкафу
·      You may meet her every evening walking with her child – Вы можете встретить ее каждый вечер гуляющей с ребенком

Note: К modals of possibility относится также часто забываемый многими to be to. Его особенность лишь в том, что в функции вероятности инфинитив, следующий за ним, используется исключительно в пассиве:

Many children are to be met in this house – В этом доме можно найти много детей

Verbs of obligation

Слова, выражающие obligation and prohibition, – это те, которые связаны с приказами, запретами, долженствованием. Эта категория включает довольно много форм, и глагольное значение каждой из них является особенным:

·      You mustn’t leave the room! – Тебе нельзя выходить из комнаты!
·      You are not to go there until he orders – Тебе нельзя идти туда, пока он не скажет

·      He shall go away immediately! – Он уедет немедленно!

Verbs of volition

У этих модальных слов в английском языке значение выражает желание. Самые яркие слова этой категории – shall и will, которые являются modals далеко не всегда и часто, как известно, выступают в роли вспомогательных слов. Однако в модальном значении они встречаются в следующих примерах:

·      We shall support our people – Мы хотим поддержать наших людей
·      You may cry if you will – Ты можешь плакать, если хочешь

Временные формы модальных глаголов

Спряжение модальных глаголов – нюанс, который заслуживает особого внимания. Модальные глаголы в прошедшем времени употребляться могут, и довольно часто (could, might, was to/were to). Но эти past modals составляют меньшинство, так как с другими образовать прошедшее время невозможно.

В будущем времени modals также не употребляются; в большинстве случае для того, чтобы выразить Future, принято использовать исходные формы. Исключение составляет, пожалуй, пара shall и will, которые в принципе связаны с будущим временем, а также must, у которого есть эквиваленты – to be likely to и to be sure to («наверняка», «точно»).

Для выражения прошедшего значения не обойтись без перфекта. Такой инфинитив, тем не менее, характерен не для всех слов: have to, shall, will/would, а также dare его не имеют.

Особое употребление имеют также модальные глаголы в косвенной речи. Как известно, типичная черта этого грамматического явления – сдвиг времен на одну ступень вниз. Но если с некоторыми modals это реально сделать (can – could, may – might), то у многих прошедшей формы нет. Однако и в этом случае структура иногда может меняться: например, must в Reported Speech переходит в have to:

“You must work to earn money”, — he said – He said that I had to work to earn money – Он сказал, что я должен работать, чтобы зарабатывать деньги

Эквиваленты модальных глаголов

Некоторые modals иногда можно заменить другими, похожими по смыслу структурами. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, как становится понятно, не совпадают по форме, но с точки зрения значения они практически равнозначны. Ниже представлена таблица модальных глаголов со всеми их возможными эквивалентами:

Modal Verbs

Используя модальные глаголы на английском языке, важно помнить не только то, что такое эти конструкции, но и то, какой смысл они в себе несут и какую функцию выполняют в предложении и в тексте. Помочь в изучении основных modals может видеоурок, где представлены основные модальные единицы. Это video содержит информацию о возможных формах modals, а также об особенностях перевода. Не стоит забывать, что знать число таких слов недостаточно; гораздо важнее ориентироваться в формах и значениях, чтобы активно использовать их в речи.

Для действий в настоящем. Present actions

  • Если мы на 100% уверены, что то или иное предположение не является правдой, мы употребляем can’t.
    He can’t be right-handed. He writes with his left hand, I saw it. – Он не может быть правшой. Он пишет левой рукой, я это видел.Важное замечание: Утвердительную форму глагола can можно употреблять только для общих предположений, например:It can be very cold here in winter. – Здесь может быть очень холодно зимой. (т. е. так бывает время от времени)
  • Might, may, could употребляются, если у вас есть определенные доказательства в пользу того или иного предположения, но вы сомневаетесь.He might get a lot of important phone calls during the day. I saw an open notepad by the phone. – Возможно, ему часто звонят по важным вопросам. Я видел раскрытый блокнот у телефона. (но это еще ничего не значит, может быть, ему позвонил кто-то именно в тот вечер)He could be a busy man. I can see a lot of notes in his notepad. – Возможно, он занятой человек. Я видел много записей в его блокноте. (но он также всегда дома, возможно, я не прав, поэтому только предполагаю, а не утверждаю на 100%)He may love coffee. I saw a half-finished cup on the table. – Возможно, он любит кофе. Я видел чашку с недопитым напитком. (но он мог приготовить его для гостя)
  • Если вы абсолютно уверены в чем-то, смело употребляйте must.
    He must have a dog. I saw dog food. – У него должна быть собака. Я видел корм.
  • Если вы делаете предположение о чем-то, что происходит в данный момент, после модального глаголa следует употреблять be + Verb + ing.
    They must be having a party, the music is very loud. – Должно быть, у них сейчас вечеринка, музыка очень громко играет.He can’t be working today, it is Christmas! – Не может быть, чтобы он работал сегодня. Рождество же!They may be skiing right now. They went to the mountain yesterday. – Вероятно, они катаются на лыжах сейчас.

Для действий в прошлом. Past actions

  • Все-таки большинство догадок Шерлока касалось событий, которые уже произошли. Как же на основе предположений показать, что речь идет о прошлом времени? После модального глагола нужно употребить have + Past participle. Ниже примеры Past Modals of Deduction.He can’t have committed the suicide. He was left-handed, the wound is on the right side of his head. – Он не мог покончить жизнь самоубийством. Ранение с правой стороны, а он был левшой.He may have made himself a sandwich. There is some bread and butter left on the table. – Возможно, он сделал себе бутерброд. На столе остались хлеб и масло.He must have been in the middle of a phone conversation, when someone came because he didn’t hang up the receiver. – Наверно, он как раз говорил по телефону, когда кто-то пришел, потому что он не повесил трубку.
  • Данное предположение может выглядеть так:
    He must have been talking on the phone, when someone came. – Должно быть, он разговаривал по телефону, когда кто-то пришел.Если мы хотим подчеркнуть, что предполагаемое действие длилось в прошлом в течение определенного времени, после модального глагола употребляем have + been + Verb + ing.Важное замечание: Если бы мы просто описывали ситуацию, не делая никаких предположений, в данном контексте следовало бы употребить Past Continuous:He was talking on the phone when someone came. – Он разговаривал по телефону, когда кто-то пришел.

We use ‘must’ when we feel sure that something is true because we have some information about the situation, we have strong evidence. She must live close to where she works because she walks to work. (the speaker doesn’t know where but is sure it is not far away) You’ve been working in the garden all day. You must be tired. Being a sky diving instructor must be very exciting.

(Must+infinitive without ‘to’)

Might, may, could We use ‘might’, ‘may’ and ‘could’ when we are not sure about something. I don’t like the sound of the engine. It could be a mechanical problem. We might need to work through the night if we want to get this ready on time. He may not like that shirt. I don’t think it’s his style. (might/may/could+infinitive without ‘to’)


Rowan: You are going to hear three scenarios and we want you to respond to each one using some of the language of deduction we used in the roleplay and spoke about in the language focus.

Rich: In each scenario, you will hear a problem or an argument. Your job is to be like Sherlock Holmes or Geoff the Groundsman if you prefer, and work out who did it.

Jack: Listen to each dialogue and think about who must have done it, who can’t have done it, and who might have done it.

Rowan: Here’s scenario 1. There is a strange smell in Rich’s flat. What could it be?

Rich: What’s that smell?

Jack: It’s not me!

Rich: I wasn’t saying that it was. It might be the neighbour cooking. He likes to experiment.

Jack: That can’t be someone cooking. It can’t be something any living thing would eat.

Rich: It smells like it’s coming from the street! Look I can see smoke.

Rowan: What could the smell be?

Jack: Here’s scenario two. Rich isn’t happy. What’s happened to Rich’s muffin?

Rich: Come on! Where is it?

Rowan: Where’s what?

Rich: I knew it was you! My muffin! I’ve been waiting all day for that.

Rowan: I don’t know anything about your muffin! I’m just finishing off my lunch here.

Rich: Yeah, right! I’ve only got this apple now. It was my last one.

Rowan: I can’t eat muffins anyway. I’m gluten intolerant, remember!

Jack: Alright — how’s it going?

Rich: What’s that down your shirt? Crumbs!

Rowan: Who’s eaten Rich’s muffin?

Rich: Here’s scenario 3. Jack’s got a speeding ticket but who was driving the car?

Rowan: Have you got the post? Anything for me?

Jack: There’s this.

Rowan: Is that what I think it is?

Jack: Another speeding ticket! The 27th of April at 8:54 P.M. Look I was teaching then. I was in class. I wasn’t driving my car then. I couldn’t have been.

Rowan: Where did it happen?

Jack: On the motorway near the shopping centre. A Thursday evening. Don’t you go out near there on a Thursday night?

Rich: Who was driving Jack’s car?

Rowan: Write all your answers in the comments section on the Premier Skills English website and try to use some of the modals of deduction we’ve introduced in this podcast.

Jack: or write your answers in the review section on Apple Podcasts if that’s where you listen to us.

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Football Phrase

Rich: Our final section as alway is our football phrase. It’s your turn this week, Jack.

Jack: This week’s football phrase is * *****-*****. This phrase is used to describe the situation when two players are competing for a loose ball. Each player has more or less an equal chance of getting the ball. To win * *****-***** you need to be stronger in the tackle than your opponent.

Rowan: Outside of football this phrase is used as an adjective to describe things that are split equally between two people or to when you have an equal chance of winning or losing.

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Rich: Let’s see who can get it right? Before we leave you we also need to tell you last week’s football phrase. The answer was a Cruyff Turn.

Rowan: Right, that’s all we have time for this week! Don’t forget to write your answers to our questions and make a guess at our football phrase in the comments below. If you get it right, we’ll announce your name on next week’s show.

Rich: Bye for now and enjoy your football!

Jack: Great to get that goal just before half-time.

Rich: It was a great finish. Let’s finish the job in the second half.

Rich: They can’t have gone missing again! What’s going on?

Rowan: This is an absolute disgrace. Who is this orange thief? We’ve got to get to the bottom of this!!!

Jack: I’m sure we will boss, see you tomorrow.

Rich: See you.

Rowan: Come around guys! Great game yesterday. Shame we couldn’t hang on for all three points.

Jack: I just ran out of energy, boss.

Rich: Maybe if we’d had those half-time oranges we’d have been able to keep going.

Rowan: Yes, the orange thief. I don’t know what’s happening but we’re on it. Geoff the groundsman is on the case. If anyone can find this orange pilferer it’s Geoff.

Jack: We need answers boss. I’m not sure we can carry on without our oranges.

Rich: This thief is costing us points boss.

Jack: See you at training on Tuesday, boss.

Rich: Have a good weekend.

Rowan: You too, bye.

Geoff: It’s been a strange week — I didn’t really know what was going on. Who would steal the team’s half-time oranges?

Rowan: Someone must be sneaking into the dressing room.

Geoff: At first, I thought the thief might be someone we don’t know but, you know me, boss. I’m in charge of locking up this place and keeping everything safe and secure. The first thing I did was rule out any outsiders. It must be someone who works here or plays football here.

Rich: What? It’s an inside job?!

Rich: And you are accusing us?

Geoff: Certainly not. I’m not accusing anyone. I know exactly who it is.

Rowan: How do you know?

Jack: It can’t be me!

Rich: It can’t have been him. He’s got a citrus allergy. You know about his citrus allergy, don’t you Geoff. He can’t go near oranges.

Geoff: I know, I know. I did think you might have tried getting rid of the oranges for that reason. Guys! One of the squad has a citrus allergy! Why not have bananas at half-time?

Rowan: Good idea, Geoff. No more oranges.

Rich: And it wasn’t me!

Geoff: I did get a distinct smell of oranges from you and suspected it might have been you for a while but I soon realised that this smell was present on arrival at training and after a little bit of deduction and reconnaissance I discovered you live next to an orange grove.

Rich: I was about to tell you that.

Geoff: I thought it might have been Johnny when I got a whiff of oranges one morning as he went past me after training but I soon deduced that the smell seemed to emanate solely from the top of his head and was only present after the players had showered.

Rich: It must have been his new shampoo, Geoff. Essential oils with a hint of citrus.

Geoff: It certainly was. You might want to use a bit less of that stuff Johnny. It’s pretty pungent! No, the person I’m looking for is not one of the players but another member of staff.

Rowan: Bobby the ball boy!

Geoff: No, not Bobby.

Rowan: Pete the physio?

Geoff: You know it’s not Pete!

Rich: How does she know?

Rowan: How dare you!

Rich: But Rowan can’t have done it! She’s out on the pitch with us!

Geoff: But you would come back licking your lips, look refreshed and reinvigorated as if your thirst had been quenched, somehow.

Geoff: You must have been drinking some orange juice.

Geoff: And then, have you never noticed guys? How loud does she listen to those matches in her office? The football commentary on the TV blasting out. It can’t be that pleasant to listen at that volume.

Rowan: I am hard of hearing in my left ear!

Geoff: You are not! It was a cover-up — literally. You were covering up the sound of this!

Rowan: My juicer!

Geoff: My evidence! Step this way. Open the locker.


Below is a guide to all the modals in detail. Their usage, description and examples have been illustrated individually below.

▶️ Must

Modal verb must is used when one feels certain that something is true or it’s the only realistic possibility.

● This must be her house. I can see her car in the garage.

● He must live near here because he always walks to work.

● You have worked all day, you must be tired.

● He must live near here because he comes to work on foot.

● She’s not here. She must be in the kitchen.

● Come inside and get warm. You must be freezing out there!

● You are a pilot, that must be interesting.

● He must be around here because his car is parked there.

● He has an expensive car, he must have some money.

● She isn’t answering the phone, she must be out.

● He drives an expensive car, he must have a good job.

● You’re a zookeeper? That must be very interesting.

● Carla works every day from 9 AM to 5 PM so she must be at work.

▶️ Might, May, Could

The modal verbs might, may or could are used to say that something is possible but not so certain.

● She’s not here yet. She might be stuck in traffic.

● We regret to inform you that some services may be delayed due to the bad weather.

● I heard a noise, there might be a cat on the roof

● She might be going to Australia.

● They might be some kind of small pig

● He might be in the Gym, sometimes he goes there

● Jerry is very tall so he might be good at basketball.

● She is busy, she might not be able to come tonight.

● He might be in his bedroom.

● He’s not answering. He could be in class.

● Peter could be at the library.

● Don’t eat it! It could be poisoned!

● Don’t put it up there. It could fall off and hit someone.

▶️ Can’t

The modal verb can’t is used when one feels that something is not possible.

● It can’t be easy for him, looking after three kids on his own.

● He can’t be dead, I just talked to him on the phone

● My wallet can’t be in my backpack, I already checked there

● It can’t be a mechanical problem, the car is new

● It can’t be far now. We’ve been driving for hours.

● That can’t be James, James wears glasses

● That looks like tomato juice, but it can’t be, that would be too easy.

● She can’t be a mother, she’s only 14!

● He can’t be in prison, I saw him yesterday in a pub.

● They can’t be Spanish, they’re speaking Portuguese

▶️ Must Have

The modal verb must have is used when one feels sure about what happened. It is used along with the past participle form of the verb.

● The thief must have had a key. The door was locked and nothing was broken.

● Who told the newspapers about the prime minister’s plans? It must have been someone close to him.

● Oh, good! We’ve got milk. Mo must have bought some yesterday.

▶️ Might Have / May Have

The modal verb might have or may have is used when we think it’s possible that something happened. It is used along with the past participle form of the verb.

● I think I might have left the air conditioning on. Please can you check?

● Police think the suspect may have left the country using a fake passport.

● She might have gone to the shops.»

▶️ Might Not Have

The modal verb might not have is a negative form of might have modal verb. It is used in a sentence where it’s possible that the action did not happen, but not certain.

● «He might not have finished his exams yet.»

It is possible that he has not finished his exams, but it is also possible that he has finished them.

▶️ Can’t Have / Couldn’t Have

The modal verbs can’t have and couldn’t have are the negative forms of can have and could have. These are used when we think it’s not possible that something happened in the past. The past participle form of the verb is used along with these modal verbs.

● She can’t have driven there. Her car keys are still here.

● I thought I saw Adnan this morning but it couldn’t have been him – he’s in Greece this week.

● She can’t leave the house yet because her car is still outside.»

Для действий в будущем. Future actions

Модальные глаголы may, might, could можно использовать для выражения неуверенности по поводу будущего. В данном случае после них употребляется инфинитив без частицы to или be + Verb + ing.

I might (may) be working on Saturday. – Возможно, я буду работать в субботу.

We could meet for lunch tomorrow. – Мы могли бы пообедать завтра вместе.

We use ‘can’t’ to show that we think something is not true. It can’t be a mechanical problem. I’ve just taken the car to a mechanic. They can’t be very happy about working during the night. (can’t+infinitive without ‘to’)

‘Must’, ‘might’, ‘may’, ‘could’ and ‘can’t’ have many more meanings and are used to talk about different situations. Here we have looked at them used for a present deduction.

Modals for past deductions lesson

Now put the right modal for these situations:

  • 1) That ___ be Danny. He said he was going abroad this week.
  • 2) I’m leaving work now but I ___ be a little late if there’s traffic on the road.
  • 3) Of course John isn’t here today. He spent the whole night drinking. He ___ be at home with a serious hangover.
  • 4) You ___ possibly be tired. You’ve just woken up.
  • 5) You ___ know Peter because he went to the same school that we went to but he is a few years younger than we are.
  • 6) I’m sorry, you ___ be confusing me with someone else, that’s not my name.

Last week’s Football Phrase

Jack: If you didn’t hear our football phrase last week we’re going to give you one more chance to guess now.

Rowan: This week’s football phrase is an action on the pitch. It’s called * ****** ****. Imagine you have the ball at your feet and a defender is in front of you. Right, now pull back one leg like you are going to pass the ball to a teammate then instead, stop your foot when it’s over the ball and pull the ball back behind your other leg, spin 180 degrees and run away with the ball. The defender will still be looking the other way if you do *** ****** **** well.

Rich: Jack also said that the phrase is connected to a Dutch footballer last week. I wonder if that gave the game away. We’ll reveal the answer at the end of the show.

Rowan: We’ll also have a new football phrase for you at the end of the show. Did anyone get the right answer last week?.

Jack: Yes, of course. We know that even if it’s a really tough phrase that some of you will get it right! The first listener to get it right last week was Mohamed Kuma from Sudan. Well done Mohamed!.

Rich: Also a big well done to Marco Zapien, Hayato from Japan, Elghoul from Algeria, Luibomyr from Ukraine, Lakerwang from China, Gergo Nagy from Hungary, Yasser Salama from Egypt and Wsanta from Argentina who also got it right.

Rowan: Remember we’ll have a new football phrase for you to guess at the end of the show.

Language Focus

Rich: Before the roleplay, we asked you two questions.

Rowan: The first question was: Who stole the oranges?

Jack: It was the manager. Can you believe it? Biting the hand that feeds her!

Rich: And the second question was: What’s the evidence against her?

Rowan: All circumstantial evidence!

Jack: Well, there’s the juicer, trips to the dressing room to drink orange juice and then you run away when asked to open your locker!

Jack: In the roleplay, Geoff the Groundsman played the role of a detective to find out who stole the half-time oranges.

Rich: He worked out or deduced that it was the manager who had taken the oranges. To deduce means to form an opinion based on information and evidence available.

Rowan: Geoff, the players and the manager used a few modals of deduction in the roleplay. These are modal verbs we use to make guesses about something using the information we have about it.

Jack: We use a different modal verb depending on how certain we think something is true.

Rich: They are sometimes called modal verbs of speculation but this is when we don’t have any evidence about something. However, they are used in the same way.

Rowan: Modal verbs of deduction or speculation can be used to make guesses about the past, present or future.

Jack: We’re going to start by looking at how these modal verbs are used to talk about the present and the future. The modal verbs we are going to look at are: can’t, might, may, could and must.

Rich: In the roleplay, the manager said a thief must be sneaking into the dressing room to steal the half-time oranges.

Rowan: We use must when we are certain or virtually certain that something is true. A thief must be sneaking into the dressing room. There is no other explanation — it must be true.

Rich: We could also replace must with have to. Listen to these examples:

Jack: A thief has to be sneaking into the dressing room. She must work here — I saw her go into this office earlier. She must be thinking of making a substitution now — we need to do something.

Rowan: We use must when we are certain that something is true. When we think something isn’t true or is impossible we use can’t.

Rich: In the roleplay, we said ‘it can’t be pleasant to listen to the TV when it’s so loud’. Groundsman Geoff was speculating here. He’s saying it’s impossible that it’s enjoyable to listen to the TV when it’s so loud.

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Jack: One of the players also said it can’t be me. The player was saying that it was impossible that he stole the oranges because he had a citrus allergy.

Rowan: Have a listen to these examples: She can’t know — nobody has spoken to her about, have they?, It can’t be him — he said he was in France until next week, They can’t have scored because I didn’t hear the fans cheer.

Rich: OK, so we use must when we are sure something is true and can’t when we are sure something is not true but often we are not sure if something is true or not.

Jack: When we are not sure about something or we think something is possible we can use may, might or could.

Rowan: In the roleplay, Geoff said I thought the thief might be someone we don’t know. We are using might to say that it is possible that the thief was someone they didn’t know.

Rich: We can use may and could in similar ways although may is a bit more formal. Listen to these examples:

Jack: They could be on their way to the airport. I saw some suitcases. Trains may be delayed due to essential repairs. Sorry for the inconvenience. The Premier League might have to play some matches at neutral venues.

Rowan: So that’s how we can use modal verbs of deduction and speculation in the present and the future. In the next section, we’re going to take a look at how they are used in the past.

Rich: When we use modal verbs of deduction to talk about past situations we use the same modal verbs as we’ve just looked at must, may, might, could and can’t with the same meaning but the grammar changes.

Rowan: It must have been his new shampoo. You must have drunk some orange juice.

Rich: She can’t have done it! She’s out on the pitch with us!  It can’t have been him. He’s got a citrus allergy.

Jack: I did think you might have tried getting rid of the oranges. I thought it might have been Johnny when I got a whiff of oranges one morning.

Rowan: In all of these examples someone is either deducing or speculating.

Rich: I think it would be a good idea to take a look at some pronunciation here. Listen to Jack and Rowan saying a few of these examples again. Which sounds more natural to you?

Jack: It must’ve bin his new shampoo.

Jack: It can’t’ve bin him. He’s got a citrus allergy.

Rowan: It can’t have been him. He’s got a citrus allergy.

Jack: I thought it might’ve bin Johnny when I smelled the oranges.

Rowan:  I thought it might have been Johnny when I smelled the oranges.

Rich: None of these are bad examples but often when we speak quickly we drop and even add or change sounds. This is called connected speech.

Rowan: When Jack was speaking he used lots of weak forms and schwas. The schwa is a very small sound that is very frequent in English. It sounds like this:  Listen to Jack again.

Jack: Must have been. Can’t have been. Might have been. Must have been. Can’t have been. Might have been.

Rich: OK, let’s leave the language there and move on to this week’s task.

Другие способы выразить possibility и certainty

Кроме modals of deduction в английском языке существуют и другие способы выражения possibility и certainty (вероятности и уверенности).

Что-то точно должно произойти

  • To be bound to do something – что-то должно произойти непременно, обязательно.Our team is much more prepared. We are bound to win. – Наша команда более подготовлена. Мы обязательно победим.
  • Something will definitely happen – что-то обязательно произойдет.Peter will definitely get this job – Питер обязательно получит эту работу.
  • To be sure to do something – точно что-то сделать.Margaret is sure to fail the test. She hasn’t done anything. – Маргарет точно провалит тест. Она ничего не сделала.

Что-то возможно/наверное произойдет

  • To be likely to do something – есть вероятность, что что-то произойдет.Young people from rural areas are likely to move to cities. – Есть вероятность, что молодые люди из сельской местности будут переезжать в города.
  • To be probable that – вероятно, что.It is probable that it will snow tomorrow. – Вероятно, завтра пойдет снег.
  • To be possible that – возможно, что.It is possible that they just lost your package. – Возможно, они просто потеряли твою посылку.

Что-то вряд ли произойдет

  • To be unlikely – что-то маловероятно.Their party is unlikely to win the elections. – Маловероятно, что их партия победит на выборах.
  • To be impossible that / to do smth – невозможно, что что-то произойдет.It is impossible to install this program on your computer. – Невозможно установить эту программу на твой компьютер.

Возможны некоторые вариации со словами most definitely (абсолютно точно), highly unlikely/likely (очень маловероятно), quite probable (вполне возможно), etc.

Модальный глагол Ought to имеет значение, схожее с модальным глаголом Should, но употребляется значительно реже. Он имеет только одну форму и требует после себя инфинитива глагола с частицей to.

Формы модального глагола Ought to:

Модальный глагол Ought to очень редко используется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях, а если используется, то обычно в формальном контексте. В вопросах подлежащее ставится между словами ought и to:

I ought not to have said those things to her.Не стоило мне этого ей говорить.

Ought we to deliver the goods by the end of March?Должны ли мы доставить эти товары до конца марта?

Модальный глагол Ought to употребляется:

What he is doing is illegal, we ought to report it to the police.То, чем он занимается – незаконно, мы должны сообщить об этом полиции.

Don’t forget about Mick’s birthday, you ought to buy him a present.Не забудь о дне рождении Мика, ты должен купить ему подарок.

The newlyweds have just returned from their honey month, they ought to be full of impressions.Новобрачные только вернулись из медового месяца, должно быть, они полны впечатлений.

You have made such a long way, you ought to be exhausted.Вы проделали такой большой путь, должно быть, вы измотаны.

Jack: Hello my name’s Jack

Rowan: My name’s Rowan

Rich: and I’m Rich and welcome to this week’s Premier Skills English podcast

Jack: In the Premier Skills English podcast, we talk about football and help you with your English.

Rowan: In this week’s roleplay, we discover that there is a thief at the football club.

Rich: We need to find out who the thief is before anything else goes missing so we turn to our very own Sherlock Holmes.

Rowan: Well, we couldn’t afford Britain’s finest private detective so we hired our very own Sherlock Holmes

Rich: We’ve hired Geoff the groundsman. He does a bit of private detective work when he’s not looking after the pitch. He sounds a bit like Jack.

Jack: Funny that. After the roleplay, we’re going to focus on what English teachers call modals of deduction.

Rich: Modals of destruction. I like it. It could be a TV series.

Jack: Deduction not destruction.

Jack: You’re right. That’s exactly what they are. We’re going to look at how they’re used in the past, too, which is a little bit more difficult.

Rich: And we’re going to take a look at the pronunciation of modals in the past because that can also be tricky.

Rowan: Your task this week is a little different, too because we want you to listen to three different scenarios or mysteries and make guesses or deduce who did what.

Jack: Yeah, we want everyone to be like Groundsman Geoff — a super sleuth — a number one detective.

Rich: More from Groundsman Geoff in our roleplay in a couple of minutes.

Rowan: If you’re listening to us on Apple Podcasts, Spotify or any other podcast platform, you should also check out our website.

Jack: That’s because on the Premier Skills English website you’ll also find the transcript, examples and activities to help you understand the language, a task for you to do and a community of friendly listeners to interact with, in our comments section.

Rich: And that includes us — we’re always around to answer questions and join the discussions.

Rowan: Right, let’s move on to our next section and last week’s football phrase.

Modals of deduction в прошлом времени

Структура модальных глаголов в прошлом другая, но смысл очень похож (просто относится к прошлому):

Where is my wallet?! Someone must have stolen it!
You’re soaked. It must have been raining outside.

The thieves might have escaped by car but we can’t be sure.
He should be hour by now. He may have been delayed by a traffic jam or something.
I can’t find my purse. I could have left it in the supermarket but I just don’t know.

I thought I saw John in town this morning but it can’t have been him – he’s in Greece this week.
I can’t have left it in the supermarket – I had it on the bus on the way home.
You can’t have read the instructions properly. They’re perfectly clear.

Как вы можете видеть в приведенных выше примерах, структура modals of deduction прошедшего времени следующая:
Affirmative: Subject + modal + have V3/ed 
Interrogative: Modal + subject + have V3/ed ?
Negative: No + subject + modal + not + have V3/ed

Вот таблица с модальными глаголами дедукции из нашей рубрики Visual Grammar для вас:

Больше примеров и упражнений для практики вы можете найти здесь:

Надеемся, ваша статья навела вас на размышления!

Modals of deduction у минулому часі

Структура модальних дієслів у минулому інша, але сенс дуже схожий (просто відноситься до минулого):

Як ви можете бачити в наведених вище прикладах, структура modals of deduction минулого часу така:

Ось таблиця із модальними дієсловами дедукції з нашої рубрики Visual Grammar для вас:

Більше прикладів та вправ для практики ви можете знайти тут:

Сподіваємось, ваша стаття навела вас на роздуми!

Что это такое и как употреблять

Некоторые из нас используют этот метод в повседневной жизни для составления заключений на родном языке. Мы также используем дедукцию в английском языке. Есть даже список модальных глаголов, которые называются модальными глаголами дедукции (modals of deduction) – их мы и обсудим в этой статье.

Modals of deduction в настоящем времени

Мы используем модальные глаголы дедукции, чтобы сказать, насколько мы уверены в чем-то. Глаголы дедукции в настоящем времени: must, might, may, could, can’t.

He must live near here because he comes to work  on  foot. (We don’t know where he lives but we’re sure it’s not far away)
You are a computer programmer? It must be well-paid job.

What do you know about him? He might be a reserved person.
They may be late on meeting.
Don’t eat it! It could be poisoned!

She can’t be a mother, she’s only 14!
He can’t be in prison, I saw him yesterday in a pub.
They couldn’t be in a library. It’s closed today.

Все модальные глаголы дедукции в настоящем зависят от того, насколько вы уверены в факте.

Структура всех modals of deduction в настоящем времени одинакова:
Affirmative: Subject + modal + V1 (bare Infinitive)
Interrogative: Modal + subject + V1 (bare Infinitive)?
Negative: No + subject + modal + not + V1 (bare Infinitive)

Що це таке та як вживати

Ми використовуємо цей метод у повсякденному житті для складання висновків рідною мовою. Ми також використовуємо дедукцію англійською мовою. Є навіть список модальних дієслів, які називаються модальними дієсловами дедукції (modals of deduction) – їх ми обговоримо в цій статті.

Modals of deduction в теперішньому часі

Ми використовуємо модальні дієслова дедукції, щоб сказати, наскільки ми впевнені у чомусь. Дієслова дедукції для теперішнього часу: must, might, may, could, can’t.

Всі модальні дієслова дедукції тепер залежать від того, наскільки ви впевнені у факті.

Структура всіх modals of deduction в теперішньому часі однакова:

Modals For Deduction About Past

Whenever we are available with a present situation or evidence and we tend to draw a conclusion about what was happened in the past, the modal verbs for deduction which are used

● Must have

● Couldn’t have

Along with a past form of verb.

  • Sheila got a tan. She must have spent a lot of time in the sun lately.
  • There was one banana left, but now it’s gone. My husband must have eaten it.

Must Not Have + Past Participle

  • The car is still dirty. Paul must not have washed it yet.
  • He barely touched his lunch. He must not have been hungry.

Couldn’t Have + Past Participlewhen one is certain that some situation was impossible to happen in the past.

  • Martha couldn’t have taken your notebook; she wasn’t even in class yesterday.
  • The cookies are gone. But Eric couldn’t have reached the cookies on the top shelf; he must have asked his older brother to get them.

Let’s look for an example that represents the difference between must not have and couldn’t have:

▪ I did not see the report here – she must not have printed it out. (Printed- verb’s past form) (we draw the conclusion that she did not do it)

▪ The printer has been broken for the past week, so she couldn’t have printed out the report. (Printed- verb’s past form) (we know it was IMPOSSIBLE for her to do it)

Modals For Deduction About The Future

Modals for deductions about the future if we are making predictions. As you know about the future tenses, one can use will or going to for saying what one believes will happen in the future. When one is quite sure that the made prediction is certain, the word ‘definitely’ can be added to put focus on the prediction.

1. She is definitely going to love this book – it’s by her favorite author.

2. The kids will definitely be thrilled when we tell them we’re going to Essel World.

Two slightly more formal expressions that can be used for talking about the future with certainty is saying that something is certain to happen, or is sure to happen:

▪ Engineers are certain to develop even faster computers.

▪ The country is sure to come to the aid of its ally.

“Deduction” means to use the information available to make a guess or to draw a conclusion about the facts available. Different modal verbs are used to indicate the degree of certainty. Some modal verbs of deduction are ‘must’, ‘should’, ‘could’, ‘will’, ‘can’, ‘have to’, ‘might’, ‘may’.

Modals For Deduction About Present

To make deductions about the present, ● Use must if one is sure about something to be true.● Use can’t if one is sure that something is impossible.

▪ She must be at work right now.

▪ She can’t be at home.

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