Материалы для подготовки к ОГЭ и ЕГЭ по английскому языку | Образовательная социальная сеть

Материалы для подготовки к ОГЭ и ЕГЭ по английскому языку | Образовательная социальная сеть Английский

Материалы для подготовки к огэ и егэ по английскому языку | образовательная социальная сеть

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Recycling is a technology that helps protect the environment and cut down on usage of raw materials. The steel, paper and glass industries recycle a lot. The largest recycler is the steel industry. It recovers more than 70 per cent of its original materials. For example, since 1988 they have produced the majority of new metal cans from old ones. Metal parts for cars and planes are other examples of recycling steel. Fragments of waste glass are widely used in construction. For producing writing paper and pens, used packing boxes are an ideal material. They are cheap and easy to recycle. Nowadays more and more recycling centres are appearing in our towns and cities.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Nowadays solar energy is widely used as an alternative form of power. Solar panels transform the energy from the sun into electricity. The first plane that does not need fuel was constructed in France in 2022. It uses only the sun’s energy. The panels are placed on the huge wings of the plane. It doesn’t fly very fast. Solar energy can make the plane move at only 140 miles an hour. However, the plane is able to travel round the world. It is safe and can successfully cross areas of bad weather. In the future, engineers hope to construct a model that people can fly in. Our dream of environmentally friendly transport may come true very soon. Would you like to take a flight on the solar plane?

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

We are always told that we should clean our teeth regularly to keep them healthy and to have fresh breath. It is believed that people started using a kind of paste to clean their teeth around 5000 years ago. However, the ingredients of these tooth powders were very different from ours. For example, the people of ancient Egypt used salt, mint, dried flowers and pepper to create tooth powder. Later, in the 18th century, in some countries in Europe, people brushed their teeth with burnt bread. The first toothpaste appeared in 1890, in Great Britain. At first it was sold in jars. Then special tubes were designed to make the toothpaste more comfortable to use.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Do you know why it is hot in the summer and cold in the winter? Most people believe that it is because the Earth is closer to the Sun in the summer and farther from it in the winter. But it is not like this at all! In fact, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is largest in July and smallest in January! Scientists suggest that the reason for different summer and winter temperatures is the angle of the Sun’s rays. In the summer, the rays reach the Earth almost at a right angle. Due to this, the rays are not spread out and a smaller area of the planet’s surface gets the energy. In the winter, the angle changes and the Sun’s rays are spread out over a larger area. Besides this, the long nights and short days do not give enough time for the land to warm up.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

A robot is a machine that does work for people. The word ‘robot’ appeared in the 1920s and it was first used in a science fiction story. In real life, the robot was invented later, in 1954. There are different kinds of robots which are used in different industries. Most of them are operated with the help of a computer program. Instead of humans, robots do hard and boring work in unpleasant or dangerous environments. They usually work faster and more accurately than people. They never get tired and do not make mistakes. Nowadays robots are often used for domestic needs  to clean houses or to look after sick and elderly people. Scientists say that soon robots will become a normal part of our life, like mobiles and computers today.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Nowadays people can’t imagine their kitchen without a refrigerator. The first refrigerators appeared at the end of the 18th century. They looked different: they were just iceboxes. The refrigerators of the past were just wooden boxes, sometimes lined inside with metal. People put ice into the box and then placed the food inside to keep it cool. The refrigerator, similar to the one that we have now, was produced by General Electric in 1911, in France. It was very expensive. In those days, with the same money you could buy two cars. Today, in developed countries almost every family has enough money to buy a refrigerator for their kitchen. It’s hard to imagine how difficult and uncomfortable our lives would be without a refrigerator.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Without the energy from the Sun, the Earth would have no life at all. Nowadays everyone knows that the Sun is a star. Like all stars, the Sun is a great burning ball of gases. To us, it seems large and red. The other stars look white or light blue because they are much farther from us than the Sun. In the past, many people believed that the Earth was the centre of the universe. They thought that the Sun and the stars went round it. Only in 1543, a great Polish scientist published a book in which he tried to prove a different point of view. According to him, the Earth and the other planets moved round the Sun. Those people who supported the scientist were often imprisoned and even killed.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The carrot is a root vegetable which consists mostly of water and sugar. The carrots that we eat today originated from the wild ones which grew in Europe and Asia. The vegetable tasted sweet and the people began to use it as food.

There are two main types of carrots. There are eastern carrots that have dark purple roots and western carrots with orange roots. In fact, orange carrots first appeared in Europe in 1721. Dutch farmers selected orange carrots because orange is the colour of the Dutch Royal Family. Now orange carrots are widely grown all over the world. In modern households carrots are cooked and eaten in different ways. The vegetable is boiled, fried, baked and eaten raw. People also make juice from it.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Since 2007 high-speed trains have become a common type of transport in Europe. They make it possible to cut travel times by hours. The trains travel at 350 kilometres an hour, and this is not the limit! The only problem for the engineers is the loud noise the trains produce. People living in the areas the trains travel through suffer from the noise greatly. For the passengers, the situation is different. For their comfort, all the carriages are made sound-proof from the inside. Travelling on high-speed trains is comfortable and pleasant. In the future, a high-speed railroad network could cover most of Europe. For example, a trip from Paris to Rome could take only 3 hours!

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Venus is one of the hottest planets in the Solar system. The temperature on its surface is 482 degrees. This unfriendly place looks much the same as the Earth 4 billion years ago. Both planets were formed from the same gas cloud, but Venus lost most of its water and atmosphere. This happened because the planet turns very slowly. As a result, now it has no magnetic field to protect it from the Sun’s winds. The planet has turned into a lifeless desert. Most space modules that were sent to Venus, could not work on the planet more than two hours. The acidic clouds and high pressure quickly made them absolutely useless.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Studies of the atmosphere first received technical support in 1912. Equipment to measure temperature and pressure was invented in Germany. But the question was how to raise it high into the air. In 1921, Russian engineers suggested using planes. The special equipment was put on planes that made regular flights. Thanks to this, scientists got a lot of new information about the structure of the atmosphere. Nowadays scientists use modern flying laboratories to study the structure of clouds at different levels. Unlike the first planes, these laboratories can work in any weather and are able to predict climate changes.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Wombats are exotic animals that only live in Australia. They have become an unofficial symbol of the country. In 1974 a wombat appeared on an Australian stamp for the first time. Since then it has been regularly used on different Australian stamps and coins. Wombats look like little bears and prefer grass to meat. They also love eating berries, plant roots and mushrooms. Like camels, wombats drink little water because there is enough water in fresh grass. Wombats spend most of their life in holes under the ground. With their strong arms and long nails they are able to dig very long and complex tunnels. Fortunately, wombats have few enemies in the animal world. Most wombats live around 15 years.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The word ‘tsunami’ can be translated from Japanese as ‘big wave’. It describes a natural process that can be dangerous for people and their homes. Most of the huge waves appear after earthquakes. Most waves are born in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans where volcanoes are active. The mass of water rises from the bottom of the ocean and moves to the shore. It moves at a speed of a plane and can be up to 40 meters high. The wave is very powerful and dangerous. In 2004, a tsunami happened in the Indian Ocean. It was one of most terrible natural disasters in history. It hit 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Thousands of people were killed or went missing.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales. It is located in a national park. It stands at 1085 metres above sea level, and it is often described as the busiest mountain in Great Britain. Snowdon is very popular with tourists. If you are strong and brave enough to get to the top, you can enjoy wonderful views from there. On a clear day, you can see as far as Ireland! During the summer months there is a café at the top. There, tourists can get a welcome cup of tea, or soup if the weather is cold. If you feel too tired to walk back, you can always take the train down the mountain. The mountain railway was built in 1896. It is safe, and there have never been any accidents on this route.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Most people enjoy watching the night sky. And the brightest object in the sky is the Moon. Every night the Moon rises in the East and sets in the West. It takes about 27 days to go around the Earth, and it’s an interesting fact that we always see the same side of the Moon. The Moon is the closest object to the Earth. It would take us only 13 hours to get to the Moon by rocket. If we were able to travel at the speed of light, it would take a bit less than two seconds.

There is a very thin atmosphere on the Moon. Life is not possible there. In spite of this, the Moon can be used as a base for space exploration and even for space tourism. Some space companies say that they will be able to take tourists to the Moon as soon as in 2020.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

People have always wanted to discover new things and new worlds. We have built spaceships to go to other planets and are planning to visit other galaxies one day. Meanwhile, we know very little about our own planet. The oceans, which cover 70 percent of the planet, are an unknown world to us. The Pacific Ocean is the largest one. The lowest point on the Earth is also there. It is called Challenger Deep and it was discovered in 1875. The Pacific Ocean stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the coast of Antarctica, but most of its water is in the warm tropics, which makes it warm. A lot of fish and animals live in the Pacific Ocean. The place is still waiting for researchers to discover its secrets for us.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean of the world. It covers the northern polar region of the Earth. The Arctic region is a very cold place. The lowest recorded temperature there is minus 68 degrees. In spite of the cold, a lot of animals live on the Arctic ice. The polar bear is one of them. Now, due to global warming, the polar bear is in a serious trouble. The thing is that polar bears hunt seals and they need ice to do this. The bears wait for seals on the ice, hunt them in the water and go back to the shore. If the ice is too thin, it breaks under the bears’ heavy bodies and they may drown. The situation is getting worse and some researchers say the ocean may become ice-free as soon as 2050.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

In 1642 a French student invented the first mechanical calculator. He was only 18 and the counting machine was a present for his father. The father worked as a tax collector and the young man wanted to make his job easier.

The talented inventor made several machines, but nobody was interested. The young man was ahead of his time. Many years passed before people realized how useful these machines could be and started mass producing them.

Today most mechanical calculators have been replaced with electronic models. These small devices can perform a lot of mathematical operations. You just need to enter the numbers by pressing the keys and you’ll see the final result on the screen in no time.

One day a young man who lived near the lake in a small American town asked himself, “Why can’t people ski on water if they can ski on snow?” With his brother’s help he constructed several models of skis to test his ideas. He experimented on the local lake for a few days and created skis suitable for the water. This happened in 1922. The young man, who was only 18 at that time, didn’t patent his invention. However, he performed a lot of shows across the country that made him and the sport of water skiing popular. Later, he was recognized as the creator of a new sport  water skiing.

Water skiing equipment has been greatly improved since that time, and the number of people who enjoy this sport is growing in many countries.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The first vacuum cleaner was designed in 1869. Since then, vacuum cleaners have changed a lot. Nowadays the robot vacuum cleaner is getting more and more popular. This device cleans a house automatically. Following a programme, the robot drives slowly around the house and makes it cleaner. It operates with brushes and a tube. The robot is so flexible that it can get under a table or sofa or reach dust in corners. Some advanced models can also wash floors of all kinds. These functions are provided by a complicated electronic system and sensors inside. The vacuum cleaner looks like a plate and can be kept in the corner. It is friendly to children and animals and works on electricity.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

It’s hard to find a more popular Russian symbol than the traditional Russian doll, or Matryoshka. It is well-known all over the world. The first set of dolls appeared in Moscow in 1890. It consisted of eight dolls. All of them were children: seven girls, one boy, and a baby. In those times, Matryoshkas were not meant as toys for children as their price was very high. Mostly, adults bought them as presents or home decorations. There was a belief that if you put a note with a wish into Matryoshka, it would come true. At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia started to export their national dolls abroad.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Global warming is a result of human activity. In 1985 there was a big conference in Austria where 89 climate researchers from different countries took part. After long discussions the scientists declared that the climate of the planet had changed. Indeed, it is warmer now than it was years ago. It can be clearly seen in the north. In the Arctic some places are ice-free now and polar bears have lost the place where they lived. The sea level has risen as well. The situation is getting more and more serious. Global warming is a great problem which needs to be solved in the near future.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

English is the third most-spoken language in the world after Chinese and Spanish. Over 840 million people speak English as a first or second language. It is an official language of 67 countries. 80 percent of information stored on all computers in the world is in English. The vocabulary of the English language is the biggest in the world. A new word is added into English almost every two hours. The English language is said to be one of the happiest languages in the world. The word happy is used more often than the word sad! That’s a good reason to learn this language, isn’t it?

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The human brain is the most complex and remarkable organ of the body. It controls everything we do  thinking, learning, and even heart rate. Though the brain makes up only 2 percent of the body’s weight, it uses around 20 percent of its energy. It works 24 hours a day. Even when a person is sleeping, the brain is working hard to keep other organs functioning. Most people think that our brain is more active during the daytime because it needs to deal with a great amount of information. In fact, that’s not true. The brain is far more active when a person is sleeping! However, scientists don’t yet have any explanation for this fact.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

We don’t realize how lucky we are to have clean water whenever we want. A lot of people around the world do not have such an opportunity. Did you know that more than 750 million people on the Earth do not have clean water to drink? Meanwhile, a lot of water is wasted and polluted. In 1993 the United Nations decided to celebrate the World Day for Water. Nowadays a lot of special events are organized in different countries. Their aim is to make people understand how important clean water is for their health, environment and agriculture. Water is essential for our life. We should think about saving it, as the fresh water supplies are limited. We need to keep it clean for ourselves and for future generations.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Earth Hour is an event that encourages people around the world to switch off electricity at the same time for one hour. Of course, switching off the lights for an hour makes a small difference to the amount of energy we use. But the aim of the event is not to save energy but to get people to think about the planet they live on. Earth Hour started in Australia in 2007. More and more countries join the ecological movement every year. Now, millions of people from 178 countries switch off their lights for 60 minutes at the end of March. People in Russia participate in this event too  large office buildings and small private houses go dark for Earth Hour.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Our planet is the only planet in the Solar System where rainbows are possible. They are not visible in big cities, due to pollution and smog. But if you are travelling after rain has fallen in the countryside or walking on the beach, you have a good chance to see a rainbow. The rainbow is a multi-coloured arc which appears in the sky. When you see a rainbow, the sun is always behind you and it is raining in front of you. It is impossible to get to the end of the rainbow and to touch it. When you move, the rainbow moves too. We have always learned that rainbows have 7 colours. However, until the 17th century, people used to think there were only 5 colours in the rainbow.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Though most people believe that the tomato is a vegetable, this plant is actually a fruit. Tomato is a fruit because it has seeds inside like apples, oranges, lemons, and all other types of fruit. The tomato comes from Central and South America. When tomatoes were brought to England in the 17th century, people thought that they were poisonous and refused to eat them. Only in 1820, Robert Johnson proved that tomatoes were absolutely safe and would not affect people’s health. He ate a basket of tomatoes in public. Nowadays, the tomato is widely used in all types of food. There are many different kinds of tomatoes  over 7,500! They differ in size, shape, colour and taste.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The Channel Tunnel is a rail tunnel beneath the English Channel which links Great Britain and France. It is considered to be one of the most amazing engineering constructions in Europe. The second longest undersea tunnel in the world was opened in 1994. It is said that 13,000 workers and engineers participated in the construction project. The Channel Tunnel contains three tunnels. The south tunnel is for people who are travelling from France to the UK, the north tunnel takes passengers from the UK to France. Nowadays it takes 35 minutes to go from Paris to London in the Channel Tunnel. The third tunnel is a service tunnel. It is not used by passengers.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The construction of the longest and the deepest railroad tunnel was finished in Europe. The tunnel runs through the Alps and links the north and south of Europe. The length of the tunnel is 57 kilometres. It runs straight from beginning to end. It will allow passenger trains to travel more quickly through the mountains. Modern technologies ensure safety and security when the trains go through the tunnel. The great project started in 2009 and it took 17 years to complete. It is considered to be one of the most amazing engineering constructions in Europe.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Bicycles or bikes are an important means of transportation in many parts of the world. The first bicycles turned up in Europe in the first half of the19th century but the word ‘bicycle’ only appeared later, in 1868. There are more bicycles in the world than cars. About 100 million bicycles are produced worldwide each year. A lot of people have realized that cycling is an easy way to get around and a great way to cut down on pollution. More and more cities have special places where people can borrow a bike and ride around the city. Over the past few years, a bicycle infrastructure has been created in Moscow. Cycling in the centre of Moscow in summer is one of the most pleasant and quickest ways of seeing the city.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Great Britain is home to the world’s oldest school. The King’s School was established in 1567 and it is still open. It has a long history. Many famous people have been educated at this old school. Nowadays The King’s School is an independent secondary school for boys and girls from 13 to 18. More than 800 pupils study at the school. Though The King’s School is located in old buildings, it has up-to-date technical equipment and provides a full modern education. The King’s School is also famous for its festival of music, drama and arts. It is held during the last week of the summer term and attracts a lot of people from different parts of the country.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Human activity creates waste. The problem isn’t new and space is no exception to the rule. Dead satellites, rocket stages and other things are littering our planet’s orbit. They are getting dangerously close to space stations and there is a great possibility of an accident. Space stations could be completely destroyed by the rubbish. In 1983, a tiny piece of paint from a satellite made a big hole in the side window of a spaceship. There is a great need to “clean up” space and to take away 3,000 tons of space rubbish. To solve the problem, scientists and engineers are designing special spaceships that will collect and recycle space rubbish.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The mobile phone has become an important part of our everyday life. We can’t imagine our lives without it now. Thanks to the mobile phone we can keep in contact with our relatives and friends at any time. We use them to text and to send emails, to share photos and videos. We can use the Internet and listen to music and do lots of other things. However, according to surveys, mobile phone users mostly spend their time on games and social networking. Around 80 percent of the world’s population has a mobile phone. The mobile phone industry is the fastest growing industry in the world. From 1983 to 2022, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over 7 billion.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Netball is played by over 20 million people in more than 70 countries of the world. It was invented in 1892 as women’s basketball. However, netball is different from basketball in many ways. For example, the ball and the basket are smaller and the court is bigger. The players cannot run with the ball. They are not allowed to touch the players who they are playing with. Netball has seven players in each team (not five as in basketball). During the 20th century, the game became very popular in English-speaking countries. Traditionally, only girls and women have played netball. Nowadays, netball is the number one women’s sport in the world but boys and men are starting to play it too.

ask 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Table tennis is the third most played sport in the world after football and cricket. It is considered to be an indoor version of Lawn Tennis. However, they have a lot of differences. Table tennis has a different scoring system, a smaller ball, smaller rackets, and a smaller playing area. Modern table tennis was invented at the end of the 19th century in England. Very soon the new sport became popular all over the world. In 1901, competitions with over 300 participants were already being held. According to numerous studies, table tennis has great effects on human health. It keeps the brain sharp and improves the player’s coordination. Since 1988, table tennis has been an Olympic sport.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

A zoo, also known as a zoological park or a zoological garden, gives people the opportunity to watch animals from different continents. There are hundreds of zoos all over the world. However, most of them are located in major cities. The first zoo in Russia was opened in 1864, in Moscow. It was a small zoological garden. On the opening day, only 287 animals were on display. Nowadays, the Moscow Zoo is one of the largest in Europe. The unique collection of the Zoo includes over 8000 kinds of animals and birds. Scientists study the animals’ behavior and reproduction. They also breed rare animals there to stop them dying out.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

Oxford University is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. It is also the second oldest university in the world. The University of Oxford is believed to have started in 1133. It is located in Oxford City on the Thames River, not far from London. Oxford University is one of the world’s most impressive centres of education. There are students from different countries there. In fact, there is no building in Oxford called Oxford University. The University includes 38 colleges and related buildings. Over 22,000 students study English language and literature, geography, history, law, modern languages and other subjects there.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The rainforest can be described as a thick and very tall jungle. The term rain comes from the great quantity of water that these forests get throughout the year. The rainforests are the world’s greatest natural resources. They are called the lungs of our planet. Half of all the kinds of plants and animals that exist on the planet live in the rainforests. Unfortunately, the area with rainforests is being reduced due to global warming. 100 years ago, the rainforests covered 14 per cent of the earth’s surface. Now, it is only 6 per cent. Scientists say that if the process continues at this rate, the rainforests will have disappeared in 40 years.

Task 1. You are going to read the text aloud. You have 01.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it aloud. Remember that you will not have more than 2 minutes for reading aloud.

The Caspian Sea is one of the world’s natural wonders. It shares the characteristics of both a sea and a lake. In the past it was called a sea because of its great size and salty water. However, the Caspian Sea is listed as the largest lake in the world. There are about 130 rivers which bring their water to the Caspian Sea. But it is not a freshwater lake  its water is very salty. The Caspian Sea is famous for its wildlife. More than 850 kinds of animals and 500 different plants can be found in this unique sea. The Caspian Sea region is also one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world. It is also rich in other natural resources.

Стратегия и тактика подготовки учащихся к огэ по английскому языку | статья по английскому языку (9 класс): | образовательная социальная сеть

«Стратегия и тактика подготовки учащихся к ОГЭ

по английскому языку»

Основной государственный экзамен по английскому языку. Вам НУЖНО его сдать, но вы ХОТИТЕ сдать максимально хорошо, для этого вы работаете и в результате вы МОЖЕТЕ заработать максимальный балл. В этой цепочке многие, к сожалению, остаются на уровне НУЖНО.

 Но когда проявляется желание, это уже намного больше, плюс ваши усилия, и вы покоряете вершину! Я часто сравниваю изучение иностранных языков со спортом, где необходимо тренироваться каждый день, чтобы держать себя в форме. День отдыха – и вы теряете позиции. Нет предела совершенству! Мы не волшебники и количество занятий, которыми мы располагаем, нам, безусловно, крайне мало. Но мы должны дать импульс к действию: саморазвитию, самообразованию, и самосовершенствованию. И поскольку изучение английского языка – это каждодневные упражнения и работа над собой, необходимо постоянно тренироваться перед главным школьным состязанием 9-ти классника – сдачей Основного государственного экзамена.

  Знаете, есть все-таки одно важное отличие экзамена по английскому языку от спортивного соревнования: здесь могут быть победителями ВСЕ!

Когда мы только начинаем открывать для себя новый язык и сталкиваемся с множеством непонятных правил, очень легко потерять уверенность в себе и бросить занятия.

Однажды один из моих учителей английского языка сделал для меня открытие, которое помогло решить эту проблему. Он сказал, что английский язык доступен каждому, в нем все очень просто, как в математике. Не в смысле «просто» — легко, а в значении, что все подчиняется логике, правилам, формулам: строгий порядок слов в предложении, обязательное наличие подлежащего и сказуемого, четкие формы видовременных форм глаголов. Если один раз понять, для чего нужна и какую смысловую нагрузку несет каждая грамматическая структура, то единственное, над чем нужно будет работать постоянно, — пополнять словарный запас. Остальное – дело техники, тренировки в употреблении самих структур и автоматизации алгоритма выбора.Важной задачей является разработка стратегии и тактики подготовки учащихся к ОГЭ.

Стратегия-это общий план, задачи на перспективу. Тактика — способы и методы выполнения этого плана и задач. Короче…. Стратегия- Что делать? Тактика- Как это делать?  Итак, структура ОГЭ письменного тура такова:

Согласно демоверсии экзамена первое задание по аудированию направлено на понимание главной темы диалога. Требуется установить соответствие между диалогом и местом, в котором данный диалог происходит: парк, отель, магазин, больница. Один из ответов- лишний.

Одна из трудностей, с которой сталкиваются учащиеся при подготовке заключается в том, что они не готовы сопоставить лексику с местами, которые они описывают. Как я помогаю учащимся в этом. Я учащимся предлагаю заполнить таблицу.

Buy some goods, supermarket, customers, cash, money, fitting room, shop assistant

Anything else? How can I help you? Could you tell me where the …. is, please? How much is that? I’m looking for a … I will pay by card.

vet clinic

 Pets, medical aid, help, animals, sick, doctor, broken paw, kind, cut, medicine

hotel

 Reception, luggage, guest, check in, make a reservation, double room, key, lobby, floor

party

 Birthday, disco, present, friends, sing and dance, invitations, have fun, decorate, celebrate, tasty food

Для начала, каждый ученик работает самостоятельно, стараясь вспомнить как можно больше слов и выражений, связанных с тем или иным местом действия. Затем учащиеся сравнивают свои результаты с результатами класса. Так у детей появляется возможность пополнить свои списки за счет идей своих товарищей.

Также я организовываю игру, когда ребенок зачитывает свой список слов и выражений, а его одноклассники угадывают место, с которым они связаны. Таким образом, это помогает систематизировать лексический материал по определенным темам. И когда дети приступают непосредственно к выполнению задания ОГЭ учащиеся готовы с большей вероятностью найти правильные ответы.

Во втором задании по аудированию учащимся предлагается установить соответствие между высказываниями и утверждениями.

Одной из проблем для учеников может стать относительная высокая скорость речи говорящего и особенности его произношения. Как же им можно помочь?

Основная цель подготовки учеников к этому заданию состоит в избегании не состоит в избегании недопонимания, т.к в английском языке много созвучных слов – омофонов. Прослушивание любого текста необходимо дополнять специальными упражнениями на узнавание конкретных слов из ряда созвучных.

Listen to the extract and circle the word of phrase you hear.

  1. Yesterday I got a mail/male from my granny.
  2. It was snowy last night/knight.
  3. He is too/two shy boy to work here.
  4. My mother usually makes cakes of oat flour/flower.

Одна из основных трудностей выполнения 2 задания раздела «Аудирование» заключается в том, что формулировки некоторых утверждений могут ввести в заблуждение, так как на первый взгляд они звучат одинаково или близки по своей тематике. В данном случае важно научить учеников видеть нюансы как в формулировке утверждений, так и в содержании самого высказывания.

Прочитайте тексты А и D (Speaker A и Speaker D).

Скажите, какой из этих текстов соответствует утверждению 

The speaker talks about health reasons for keeping pets.

Speaker A

Lots of people in big cities want to keep pets. I think that a cat or a dog in an urban flat is ok, but I strongly disapprove of people who want to have a tiger, a monkey or a large snake at home. The unnatural environment does lots of harm to the animals and it’s very difficult to provide a balanced diet for them. It also may be inconvenient or even dangerous to the owner and people around them aswild animals are unpredictable.

Speaker D

Life in big cities is really stressful and it may cause different illnesses. Some doctors believe that common pets we keep at home, like cats, dogs and birds, can prevent some illnesses. For example, people who have heart problems usually feel better if there’s a dog in the house. It’s partly because of the positive energy the animal gives and partly because regularly walking the dog makes people stronger.

Как же можно помочь учащимся успешно справиться с третьим заданием раздела «Аудирование»?

В данном задании учащиеся прослушивают диалог и отвечают на поставленный вопрос, выбирая правильный ответ из 3х вариантов. Чаще всего это задание вызывает трудности у учеников, которые слабо владеют стратегией аудирования с выборочным пониманием интересующей информации.

В такой ситуации в рамках подготовки следует как можно чаще тренировать именно это умение.

Я своим учащимся предлагаю список предложений с пропусками. Они прослушивают запись диалога первый раз и заполняют эти пропуски

  1. My family’s lived in ___________________ for ages and we seldom travel anywhere either.
  2. I’m deeply interested in ____________________________.
  3. I’ve found a shop with some ______________________________.

Еще одна типичная ошибка у учащихся при выполнении данного задания заключается в том, что они ожидают услышать в аудиотексте те же лексические единицы, которые включены в вопросы и предполагаемые ответы. Для того, чтобы избежать эту ошибку я предлагаю учащимся определить соответствие слов из списка с их синонимами или дефинициями. Такая тренировка будет способствовать расширению словарного запаса учащихся за счет синонимичного ряда.

Match the words and phrases to the synonyms.

visit

travel

sportscompetition

research

shop

a sport contest

b exploration

cstore

d go to see

e journey


Чтение

В задании 9-необходимо прочитать 7 коротких текстов и найти в них ответ на один  из предлагаемого списка вопросов. Вопросы отражают основные идеи соответствующих текстов. В задании задан один лишний вопрос.

В задании 10-17 –необходимо определить, соответствует ли утверждения, данные после текста, его содержанию верные (True) , неверные (False), или в тексте об этом не сказано (Not stated). Задания могут проверять понимание части текста или отдельных его предложений.

На уроках иностранного языка я обучаю детей уже с 5 класса навыкам смыслового и поискового чтения. Как показывает опыт, многие школьники не владеют этими способами чтения на иностранном языке, т. к. сразу же начинают пытаться перевести текст и застопориваются при виде первого незнакомого слова. Эти «вредные» привычки должны быть преодолены.

Для себя я открыла инновационную технологию работы с тестом «Reading Circle» «чтение по кругу» . На практике я увидела в действии данную технологию.

Что такое «Чтение по кругу?» Сущность данной технологии заключается в следующем: на уроке обучающимся предлагается опорная схема, по которой соблюдается последовательность и этапы работы с текстом. После знакомства с опорной схемой, следует распределение по ролям,с учетом индивидуализации и дифференциации обучения.

Первой стадией работы является чтение текста. Данную роль выполняет “Passage Person” или «Чтец». При чтении следует обратить внимание на произносительную сторону речи, умения читать, с целью извлечения конкретной информации, что является обязательным на данном этапе, а также умения переводить с английского на русский язык.

Следующим этапом работы с текстом является работа с лексикой. Назначенную роль выполняет “Word Master”.В данном разделе контролируется знание ЛЕ для продуктивного усвоения. (перевод лексических единиц, найти синонимы, обратный перевод)

Роль “Discussion Leader” ориентирована на правильное составление вопросов и ответов обучающихся на эти вопросы, что позволяет определить, насколько хорошо они ориентируются в текстах – высказываниях и понимают их содержание. (ответ на вопросы, продолжи высказывания, верно – неверно).

Следующую роль выполняет “ Connector”. Упражнение направлено на развитие умения вести диалог, уметь найти в тексте правильный ответ на вопрос или наоборот, а также читать вслух и инсценировать на основе составленного диалога-клише.( составь диалог по теме)

Заключительный этап работы выполняет “Summarizer” . Упражнение направлено на построение монологического высказывания. Обучающиеся в устной форме готовят собственные высказывания, используя вводные слова, реплики- клише с опорой на прочитанный текст. ( монолог на тему)

Технология «Reading Circle» «чтение по кругу» помогает прорабатывать материал детально. И включает в себя развитие всех навыков чтения необходимых для сдачи ОГЭ.

Грамматика. Разберем на примере как работать с предложением. Необходимо всегда внимательно читать инструкции к заданию. Обращать внимание на глаголы.

Памятка по написанию личного письма

 Уважаемый участник ОГЭ!

  1. Внимательно прочитайте задание и обратите внимание:
  1. Вспомните правила оформления личного письма.  В нем должны присутствовать:
  1. Прочитайте написанное вами письмо еще раз, посмотрите, все ли элементы присутствуют.

ОБРАЗЦЫ ПИСЕМ

 З а д а н и е:  вспомните критерии оценивания. Что бы вы сказали об этих письмах? You have 30 minutes to do this task. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend, Carl.

… I am very busy now preparing for my exams but yesterday I went to the cinema with my friends. We saw a new film about Sherlock Holmes. You’ve probably seen it too,…

What kinds of films do you like? Where do you prefer watching films – in the cinema or at home and why? What would you make a film about if you had a chance?… Write him a letter and answer his questions. Write 100-120words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Письмо 1            

                                                                                                               Voronezh
Russia
7
th May

Dear Carl,
Thank you for your letter. I’m sorry for not writing to you earlier.
You ask me what films I like. I like detectives. I prefer watching them at home as it’s more comfortable. If I had a chance, I would make a film about Miss Marple. I adore Agatha Christie and films based on her books very much.
Write back soon.
Best wishes,
Robert
Письмо 2


Voronezh
Russia
7
th May


Dear Carl,
Thank you for letter. I am glad you saw the new film.
You ask me what films I like mostly. Well, as for me, I love romantic films. My favourite film is «The Titanik». I prefer watching such films in the cinema as you are in the atmosphere of the film. There is a big screen and good sound there. And I also can go there with all my friends. If I had a chance, I would make a film like «The Titanik» where there is love, some unhappiness and which is based on real events.
Write back soon.
Best wishes,
Mila
Письмо 3


34, Lianozovo st.,
Voronezh, Russia
7
th May


Hello, Carl!
Thanks you for your letter. I am glad you saw the new film.
You asked me in your letter what films I like mostly. Well, as far as I am concerned, I like soap operas. Mostly, I prefer watching such films at home. Firstly, there are no soap operas in the cinema. But I can sit on my comfortable sofa at home, have some popcorn and Cola and watch my big plazma TV. If I had a little chance, I would make a very long film where I will have many celebrities. The film will take place in the desert. It will be a story of a rich family whose business is selling different things. One of the members will travel to Europe. Hope that people will like it.
Write back soon.
Best wishes,
Luba
Анализ писем-ответов

Письмо 1
Количество слов-70.
К1 (Решение коммуникативной задачи) – 0 баллов, так как количество слов в письме 70, что меньше 90 слов. Письмо не проверяется.
Общая оценка – 0 баллов.
Письмо 2
 Количество слов – 109.
К1 (Решение коммуникативной задачи) – даны полные ответы на три заданных вопроса. Правильно выбраны обращение, завершающая фраза и подпись. Есть благодарность, упоминание о предыдущих контактах, выражены надежда на будущие контакты.
К2 (Организация текста) – текст логично выстроен и разделён на абзацы; правильно использованы языковые средства для передачи логической связи; оформление текста соответствует нормам письменного этикета
К3 (Лексико-грамматическое оформление текста) – использованы разнообразная лексика, также имеются грамматические структуры, соответствующие поставленной коммуникативной задаче.
К4 (Орфография и пунктуация) – орфографические и пунктуационные ошибки практически отсутствуют (допускается не более 2, не затрудняющих понимание текста).
Общая оценка – 10 баллов.
Письмо 3
Количество слов – 144.
(Количество слов больше 132(120 10%), поэтому проверяется только 120 слов, соответствующих объёму задания.)
К1 (Решение коммуникативной задачи) – даны полные ответы на три заданных вопроса. Правильно выбрано обращение, нет завершающей фразы и подписи (не попали в 120 проверяемых слов). Есть благодарность, упоминание о предыдущих контактах. Нет выражения надежды на будущие контакты. Есть нарушения в стиле.
К2 (Организация текста) – текст логично выстроен и разделён на абзацы; правильно использованы языковые средства для передачи логической связи; оформление текста соответствует  нормам письменного этикета.
К3 (Лексико-грамматическое оформление текста) – использованы разнообразная лексика, также имеются грамматические структуры, соответствующие поставленной коммуникативной задаче. Однако имеются ошибки.
К4 (Орфография и пунктуация) – есть орфографические и пунктуационные ошибки, которые не затрудняют понимание текста.
Общая оценка – 7 баллов.

Последние несколько лет наша российская школа переживает качественно новый этап в своём развитии, который связан с кардинальным изменением задач обучения, достижением необходимого уровня коммуникативной компетенции. Эффективность обучения во многом определяется уровнем коммуникативных умений. А ведь за счет говорения и только за счет него можно расширять словарный запас, на котором строится весь экзамен, можно учиться формулировать свои мысли, слушать чужую речь и следить за ошибками. Все это является основой не только для успешной сдачи ОГЭ, но и для реального владения иностранным языком. Раздел «Говорение» или «Устный тур» представлен следующими заданиями: чтение вслух небольшого научно-популярного текста, ответить на вопросы телефонного опроса, составление монолога на заданную тему.  Как готовить учащихся к тематическому монологическому высказыванию? В своей педагогической практике все учителя постоянно задают ученику вопросы, и желают получить на них ответы. Сейчас мы требуем от учащихся аргументировать свои ответы. Учащиеся должны говорить логично, используя «linking words» типа: moreover; in addition to, however; on the other hand; as soon as; in particular; in conclusion; all in all; etc.  

ЧТО ДЕЛАТЬ? Советы экзаменующемуся. Обратите ваше внимание на общие выводы и стратегии поведения на экзамене:

  1. Если встретили незнакомое слово
  1. Если не знаете ответ
  1. Если не хватает времени на выполнение задания

При выполнении раздела Чтение;

При написании личного письма, на которое дают 30 минут. Письмо можно сразу же писать на чистовик, так как большая часть самого письма нам уже известна: формат письма предопределен;

На других заданиях, здесь каждый выбирает по своим способностям и пристрастиям.

  • Однако если всё-таки времени не хватает, во-первых, в оставшееся время аккуратно занесите все ответы в бланк, обратитесь к выполнению тех заданий, в которых вы более уверены, в тех, где вы получите “свои” законные баллы. Не оставляйте бланк ответов незаполненным, даже если вы вообще не приступали к какому-либо заданию. Это, конечно, наихудшая ситуация, придётся поставить ответы наугад.

ДЕСЯТЬ ЗАПОВЕДЕЙ Като Ломб

Като Ломб – профессиональная переводчица из Венгрии, владеющая многими языками. Для всех осваивающих тот или иной иностранный язык она сформулировала 10 заповедей.

  1. Занимайся языком ежедневно. Если уж совсем нет времени, то хотя бы десять минут. Лучше всего заниматься по утрам.
  2. Если желание заниматься слишком быстро ослабевает, не “форсируй”, но и не бросай учёбу. Придумай какую-нибудь иную форму: отложи книгу и послушай радио, оставь упражнения учебника и полистай словарь и т.д.
  3. Никогда не зубри, не заучивай нечего по отдельности, в отрыве от контекста.
  4. Выписывай вне очереди и заучивай все “готовые фразы”, которые можно использовать в максимально возможном количестве случаев.
  5. Старайся мысленно переводить всё, что возможно: промелькнувшее рекламное табло, надпись на афише, обрывки случайно услышанных разговоров. Это всегда отдых, даже для уставшей головы.
  6. Выучить прочно стоит только то, что исправлено преподавателем. Не перечитывай собственных неисправленных упражнений: при многократном чтении текст запоминается невольно со всеми возможными ошибками. Если занимаешься один, то выучивай только заведомо правильное.
  7. Готовые фразы, идиоматические выражения выписывай и запоминай в первом лице единственного числа. Например: “I am only pulling your leg” (я тебя только дразню)
  8. Иностранный язык – крепость, которую необходимо штурмовать со всех сторон одновременно: чтением газет, слушанием радио, просмотром недублированных фильмов, посещением лекций на иностранном языке, проработкой учебника, перепиской, встречами и беседами с друзьями – носителями языка.
  9. Не бойся говорить, не бойся возможных ошибок, а проси, чтобы их исправляли. И главное, не расстраивайся и не обижайся, если тебя действительно начнут поправлять.
  10. Будь твёрдо уверен в том, что во что бы то ни стало достигнешь цели, что у тебя несгибаемая воля и необыкновенные способности к языкам.

Като Ломб предложила простую формулу, которая определяет результат в освоении языка. Вот она: затраченное время интерес = результат или, если её немного уточнить:  (затраченное время интерес)/стеснение (страх сделать ошибку) = результат.

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